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CyrilSebastian

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« Reply #495 on: October 20, 2020, 01:13:56 AM »

Princess Victoria, Princess of Battenberg visited her sister Grand Duchess Elizabeth at Ilinskoe in 1907.   
http://www.pinterest.com/pin/8162843054524060

Her son Louis Mountbatten later surprised his Russian (Soviet) hosts by pointing out the rooms he had slept in as a child.
   
Did Louis Moiuntbatten visit Russia often before the abdication of the Tsar?

Quite a few times. He also had a crush on his cousin, Grand Duchess Maria.

Curiously the last time they saw eachother was early before the war. Victoria left her jewels with her sister Alexandra, for safekeeping, because she thought they would be more protected there, before returning to England. If only she'd knew.
   
Did Princess Victoria leave any tiaras with Alexandra?
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« Reply #496 on: October 20, 2020, 03:09:31 AM »

Princess Victoria, Princess of Battenberg visited her sister Grand Duchess Elizabeth at Ilinskoe in 1907.  
http://www.pinterest.com/pin/8162843054524060

Her son Louis Mountbatten later surprised his Russian (Soviet) hosts by pointing out the rooms he had slept in as a child.
 
Did Louis Moiuntbatten visit Russia often before the abdication of the Tsar?

Quite a few times. He also had a crush on his cousin, Grand Duchess Maria.

Curiously the last time they saw eachother was early before the war. Victoria left her jewels with her sister Alexandra, for safekeeping, because she thought they would be more protected there, before returning to England. If only she'd knew.

Victoria really tried to get Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia out of Russia during the revolution--she wrote a letter to Arthur Balfour begging to be able to have the younger girls sent to her for safety, but her request was declined.

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‘I quite realize that the boy is a political asset which no party in Russia would allow to be taken out of its hands, but the girls (except perhaps the eldest) can be of no value or importance,’ she said. ‘I and my husband would willingly keep them here in quiet obscurity.’ She received a reply that the difficulties in the way of such a proposal were ‘almost insuperable.’
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« Reply #497 on: November 05, 2020, 12:47:07 AM »

Tsar Paul I condescending to visit Kosciusko in the prison, circa 1796   
http://www.alamy.com/stoc...t-kosciusko-24988981.html
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« Reply #498 on: November 26, 2020, 01:08:52 AM »

Empress Anna of Russia and her court   
http://www.alamy.com/empr...ction-image213544841.html
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« Reply #499 on: January 17, 2021, 12:49:48 AM »

Tsar Paul I was a member of the House of Romanov. Paul was descended from the Romanovs through his mother's line rather than his father's. His official house was listed as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov.
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« Reply #500 on: January 18, 2021, 02:44:30 PM »

Tsar Paul I was a member of the House of Romanov. Paul was descended from the Romanovs through his mother's line rather than his father's. His official house was listed as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov.

In earlier times the succession in Russia had been a chaos:

Michael I (Russian: Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов, Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov) (22 July [O.S. 12 July] 1596 – 23 July [O.S. 13 July] 1645) became the first Russian Tsar of the House of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov (later known as Patriarch Filaret) and of Xenia (later known as "the great nun" Martha). From his marriage to Eudoxia Streshneva, Michael fathered 10 children.


Alexei Mikhailovich (Russian: Алексе́й Миха́йлович, IPA: [ɐlʲɪkˈsʲej mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ]; 29 March [O.S. 19 March] 1629 – 8 February [O.S. 29 January] 1676) was the Tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. Eldest (surviving) son of Michael I and Eudoxia. Alexei's first marriage to Miloslavskaya was harmonious and felicitous. She bore him thirteen children (five sons and eight daughters) in twenty-one years of marriage, and died only weeks after her thirteenth childbirth. Four sons survived her (Alexei, Fyodor, Semyon, and Ivan), but within six months of her death, two of these were dead, including Alexei, the 15-year-old heir to the throne. Alexei remarried on 1 February 1671 to Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina (1 September 1651 – 4 February 1694). She was brought up in the house of Artamon Matveyev, whose wife was the Scottish-descended Mary Hamilton. They had 3 children.


Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, 6 September [O.S. 27 August] 1666 – 8 February [O.S. 29 January] 1696) was a joint Tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. Ivan was the youngest son of Alexis I of Russia by his first wife, Maria Miloslavskaya, while Peter was the only son of Alexis by his second wife, Natalya Naryshkina. Ivan's reign was solely titular because he had serious physical and mental issues. In late 1683 or early 1684, Ivan married Praskovia Saltykova, daughter of Fyodor Petrovich Saltykov, a minor nobleman. She bore him 5 daughters.


Peter the Great (Russian: Пётр Вели́кий, tr. Pyotr Velikiy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj]), Peter I (Russian: Пётр Первый, tr. Pyotr Pyerviy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj]) or Pyotr Alekseevich (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ]; 9 June [O.S. 30 May] 1672 – 8 February [O.S. 28 January] 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V.Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and also laid the groundwork for the Imperial Russian NavyHe led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, Westernised and based on the Enlightenment.Peter the Great had two wives, with whom he had fourteen children, three of whom survived to adulthood. Peter's mother selected his first wife, Eudoxia Lopukhina, with the advice of other nobles in 1689.This was consistent with previous Romanov tradition by choosing a daughter of a minor noble. This was done to prevent fighting between the stronger noble houses and to bring fresh blood into the family.Upon his return from his European tour in 1698, Peter sought to end his unhappy marriage. He divorced the Tsaritsa and forced her to join a convent. The Tsaritsa had borne Peter three children, although only one, Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich of Russia, had survived past his childhood.His eldest child and heir, Alexei, was suspected of being involved in a plot to overthrow the Emperor. Alexei was tried and confessed under torture during questioning conducted by a secular court. He was convicted and sentenced to be executed. The sentence could be carried out only with Peter's signed authorization, and Alexei died in prison, as Peter hesitated before making the decision. Alexei's death most likely resulted from injuries suffered during his torture. Alexei's mother Eudoxia had also been punished; she was dragged from her home and tried on false charges of adultery. He took Martha Skavronskaya, a Polish-Lithuanian peasant, as a mistress some time between 1702 and 1704. Martha converted to the Russian Orthodox Church and took the name Catherine. Though no record exists, Catherine and Peter are described as having married secretly between 23 Oct and 1 December 1707 in St. Petersburg. Peter valued Catherine and married her again (this time officially) at Saint Isaac's Cathedral in Saint Petersburg on 19 February 1712.In 1724, Peter had his second wife, Catherine, crowned as Empress, although he remained Russia's actual ruler. All of Peter's male children had died.


Grand Duke Alexei Petrovich of Russia (28 February 1690 – 7 July 1718) was a Russian Tsarevich. He was born in Moscow, the son of Tsar Peter I and his first wife, Eudoxia Lopukhina. Alexei despised his father and repeatedly thwarted Peter's plans to raise him as successor to the throne. His brief defection to Austria scandalized the Russian government, leading to harsh repressions against Alexei and his associates. Alexei died after interrogation under torture, and his son Peter Alexeyevich became the new heir apparent. Alexei married Princess Charlotte of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, whose family was connected by marriage to many of the great families of Europe (i.e., Charlotte's sister Elizabeth was married to Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy). He had two children with Charlotte.


Catherine I (Russian: Екатери́на I Алексе́евна Миха́йлова, tr. Yekaterína I Alekséevna Mikháylova; born Polish: Marta Helena Skowrońska, Russian: Ма́рта Самуи́ловна Скавро́нская, tr. Márta Samuílovna Skavrónskaya; 15 April [O.S. 5 April] 1684 – 17 May [O.S. 6 May] 1727) was the second wife and Empress consort of Peter the Great, and Empress regnant of Russia from 1725 until her death in 1727. Catherine and Peter had twelve children, all of whom died in childhood except Anna and Elizabeth. In 1724 Catherine was officially crowned and named co-ruler and as Empress regnant.Peter died (28 January 1725 Old Style) without naming a successor. Catherine represented the interests of the "new men", commoners who had been brought to positions of great power by Peter based on competence. A change of government was likely to favor the entrenched aristocrats. For that reason during a meeting of a council to decide on a successor, a coup was arranged by Menshikov and others in which the guards regiments with whom Catherine was very popular proclaimed her the ruler of Russia, giving her the title of Empress. She died two years after Peter, at age 43, in St. Petersburg.



Peter II Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич, Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (23 October [O.S. 12 October] 1715 – 30 January [O.S. 19 January] 1730) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his untimely death. He was the only son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich (son of Peter the Great by his first wife, Eudoxia Lopukhina) and of Charlotte Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg.His father, the tsarevich Alexei, accused of treason by his own father, Peter the Great, died in prison in 1718. So three-year-old Peter and his four-year-old sister, Natalya, became orphans. Their grandfather showed no interest in their upbringing or education: the Tsar had disliked their father and even their grandmother, his own first wife, and young Peter in particular reminded him of his only son Alexei, whom the Tsar suspected of treachery. Therefore, from his childhood, the young orphaned Peter was kept in the strictest seclusion.Peter the Great died in 1725 and was succeeded by his second wife, Catherine I, a woman of low birth. During the reign (1725-1727) of Catherine I, young Peter was ignored; but by the time she died in 1727, it had become clear to those in power that the only male-line grandson of Peter the Great could not be kept from his inheritance much longer. Through the efforts of Menshikov, the court named Peter as Catherine's heir apparent, even though Catherine had two daughters of her own. The relevant documentation also specified the betrothal of Peter to Menshikov's daughter Maria.Though they never married their engagement was announced and a dowry discussed. Peter II was quick-witted, but apparently a stubborn and wayward boy, much like his grandfather. Despite these similarities, the emperor had no desire to learn to rule, unlike Peter the Great. Peter II returned to St. Petersburg from time to time, but continued an aimless life full of entertainment and distraction. He gradually fell under the ultimate influence of the Dolgorukovs – Peter II became smitten with the 18-year-old beauty Ekaterina Alekseyevna Dolgorukova. The family schemed to tie themselves to the imperial bloodline, and persuaded Peter to marry Ekaterina. However, it soon became clear that the young monarch had no interest in his bride, perhaps influenced by his aunt Elizabeth Petrovna, who did not like Ekaterina.In late December 1729, Peter II fell dangerously ill.Emperor Peter II died as dawn broke on 30 January 1730. With Peter's death, the direct male line of the Romanov dynasty ended. He was succeeded by Anna Ivanovna, daughter of Peter the Great's half-brother and co-ruler, Ivan V.


The 4th daughter (the 2nd one surviving into adulthood) of Ivan V & Praskovia:  Anna Ioannovna (Russian: Анна Иоанновна; 7 February [O.S. 28 January] 1693 – 28 October [O.S. 17 October] 1740), also spelled Anna Ivanovna[1] and sometimes anglicized as Anne, was regent of the duchy of Courland from 1711 until 1730 and then ruled as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Much of her administration was defined or heavily influenced by actions set in motion by her uncle, Peter the Great. In 1730, Tsar Peter II (grandson of Anna's uncle Peter the Great) died childless at a young age. His death rendered extinct the male line of the Romanov dynasty, which had ruled Russia for over a century, since 1613. There were five possible candidates for the throne: the three surviving daughters of Ivan V, namely Catherine (born 1691), Anna herself (born 1693) and Praskovya (born 1694), and the two surviving daughters of Peter the Great, namely Anna (born 1708) and Elizabeth (born 1709). Finally, the Russian Supreme Privy Council led by Prince Dmitri Golitzyn selected Anna, the second daughter of Ivan V, to be the new Empress of Russia. She was selected in preference to her elder sister Catherine. At the time Anna was a childress widow. Strong-willed and eccentric, Anna was known for her cruelty and vulgar sense of humor. As her health declined Anna declared her grandnephew, Ivan VI, as her successor and appointed Biron as regent. This was an attempt to secure the line of her father, Ivan V, and exclude the descendants of Peter the Great from inheriting the throne. Anna died on October 17, 1740 at the age of 47 from a terrible kidney stone that made for a slow and painful death. Ivan VI was only a two-month-old baby at the time, and his mother, Anna Leopoldovna, was detested for her German counsellors and relations. As a consequence, shortly after Anna's death, Elizabeth Petrovna, legitimized daughter of Peter the Great, managed to gain the favor of the populace, locked Ivan VI in a dungeon, and exiled his mother. Anna was buried three months later on January 15, 1741, leaving behind uncertainty for the future of Russia


Ivan VI Antonovich (Iván VI; Ioánn Antónovich; Russian: Ива́н VI; Иоа́нн Анто́нович; 23 August [O.S. 12 August] 1740 – 16 July [O.S. 5 July] 1764) was Emperor of Russia in 1740–41. Ivan was the eldest child of Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg by his wife, Duchess Anna Leopoldovna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the only niece of the childless Empress Anna of Russia, and the only granddaughter of Tsar Ivan V. He was only two months old when he was proclaimed emperor and his mother named regent. Scarcely a year later, Elizabeth, his first cousin twice removed, seized the throne in a coup. Ivan and his parents were imprisoned far from the capital, and spent the rest of their lives in captivity. After more than twenty years as a prisoner, Ivan was killed by his guards when some army officers (unknown to Ivan) attempted to free him. His surviving siblings, who had been born in prison, were then released into the custody of their aunt, the Danish queen dowager Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.


Elizabeth Petrovna (Russian: Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (29 December [O.S. 18 December] 1709 – 5 January 1762 [O.S. 25 December 1761]), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death in 1762. Her parents were Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia and Catherine I. As a child, Elizabeth was the favorite of her father, whom she resembled both physically and temperamentally. Even though he adored his daughter, Peter did not devote time or attention to her education; having both a son and grandson from his first marriage to a noblewoman, he did not anticipate that a daughter born to his former maid might one day inherit the Russian throne, which had until that point never been occupied by a woman; as such, it was left to Catherine to raise the girls, a task met with considerable difficulty due to her own lack of education. In 1724, Peter betrothed his daughters to two young princes, first cousins to each other, who hailed from the tiny north German principality of Holstein-Gottorp and whose family was undergoing a period of political and economic stress. Anna Petrovna (aged 16) was to marry Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, who was then living in exile in Russia as Peter's guest after having failed in his attempt to succeed his maternal uncle as King of Sweden and whose patrimony was at that time under Danish occupation.n the same year, Elizabeth was betrothed to marry Charles Frederick's first cousin, Charles Augustus of Holstein-Gottorp, the eldest son of Christian Augustus, Prince of Eutin. Her sister's wedding was held in 1725 as planned, even though their father died a few weeks before the nuptials. In her case, however, her fiancé died on 31 May 1727, before the wedding could be celebrated. On the night of 25 November 1741 (O.S.), Elizabeth seized power with the help of the Preobrazhensky Regiment. Elizabeth crowned herself Empress in the Dormition Cathedral on 25 April 1742 (O.S.) As an unmarried and childless empress, it was imperative for Elizabeth to find a legitimate heir to secure the Romanov dynasty. She chose her nephew, Peter of Holstein-Gottorp. The young Peter had lost his mother at three months old and his father at the age of eleven. Elizabeth invited her young nephew to Saint Petersburg, where he was received into the Orthodox Church and proclaimed the heir to the throne on 7 November 1742. Keen to see the dynasty secured, Elizabeth immediately gave Peter the best Russian tutors and settled on Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst as a bride for her heir. On her conversion to the Russian Orthodox Church, Sophie was given the name Catherine in memory of Elizabeth's mother. The marriage took place on 21 August 1745. Nine years later a son, the future Paul I, was born on 20 September 1754. There is considerable speculation as to the actual paternity of Paul I. It is suggested that he was not Peter's son at all but that his mother had engaged in an affair, to which Elizabeth had consented, with a young officer, Sergei Vasilievich Saltykov, who would have been Paul's biological father. Peter never gave any indication that he believed Paul to have been fathered by anyone but himself but took no interest in parenthood. Elizabeth most certainly took an active interest and acted as if she were his mother, instead of Catherine.


Peter III (21 February [O.S. 10 February] 1728 – 17 July [O.S. 6 July] 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Фёдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. He was born in Kiel as Charles Peter Ulrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (German: Karl Peter Ulrich von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf), the only child of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (the son of Hedvig Sophia of Sweden, sister of Charles XII), and Anna Petrovna (the elder surviving daughter of Peter the Great). The German-born Peter could hardly speak Russian and pursued a strongly pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. He was deposed by troops loyal to his wife, Catherine, the former Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, who despite her own German origins was a Russian nationalist. The emperor was arrested and forced to abdicate on 9 July [O.S. 28 June] 1762. Shortly thereafter, he was transported to Ropsha, where he later died. There is much mystery surrounding his death. The official cause, after an autopsy, was a severe attack of hemorrhoidal colic and an apoplectic stroke, while others say he was assassinated. He was buried 3 August 1762 [O.S. 23 July]

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« Reply #501 on: January 18, 2021, 02:45:01 PM »

Catherine II (born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; 2 May 1729 in Szczecin – 17 November 1796), most commonly known as Catherine the Great, was Empress of All Russia from 1762 until 1796—the country's longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d'état that overthrew her husband and second cousin, Peter III. The period of Catherine the Great's rule, the Catherinian Era, is considered a Golden Age of Russia. Catherine was born in Stettin, Pomerania, Kingdom of Prussia (now Szczecin, Poland) as Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg. Her father, Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, belonged to the ruling German family of Anhalt. Sophie first met her future husband, who would become Peter III of Russia, at the age of 10. Peter was her second cousin. Based on her writings, she found Peter detestable upon meeting him.When Sophie arrived in Russia in 1744, she spared no effort to ingratiate herself not only with Empress Elizabeth, but with her husband and with the Russian people as well. Apart from providing governing experience, the marriage was unsuccessful - it was not consummated for twelve years due to Peter III's impotence and mental immaturity. The couple had officially two children, Paul and Anna. While Catherine later had illegitimate children. After the death of the Empress Elizabeth on 5 January 1762 (OS: 25 December 1761), Peter succeeded to the throne as Emperor Peter III, and Catherine became empress consort.In July 1762, barely six months after becoming emperor, Peter lingered in Oranienbaum with his Holstein-born courtiers and relatives, while his wife lived in another palace nearby. On the night of 8 July (OS: 27 June 1762), Catherine the Great was given the news that one of her co-conspirators had been arrested by her estranged husband and that all they had been planning must take place at once. The next day, she left the palace and departed for the Ismailovsky regiment, where she delivered a speech asking the soldiers to protect her from her husband. Catherine then left with the regiment to go to the Semenovsky Barracks, where the clergy was waiting to ordain her as the sole occupant of the Russian throne. She had her husband arrested, and forced him to sign a document of abdication, leaving no one to dispute her accession to the throne. On 17 July 1762—eight days after the coup that amazed the outside world and just six months after his accession to the throne—Peter III died at Ropsha, possibly at the hands of Alexei Orlov (younger brother to Grigory Orlov, then a court favourite and a participant in the coup). Peter supposedly was assassinated, but it is unknown how he died. The official cause, after an autopsy, was a severe attack of haemorrhoidal colic and an apoplexy stroke. Although Catherine did not descend from the Romanov dynasty, her ancestors included members of the Rurik dynasty, which preceded the Romanovs. She succeeded her husband as empress regnant, following the precedent established when Catherine I succeeded her husband Peter the Great in 1725. Catherine, throughout her long reign, took many lovers, often elevating them to high positions for as long as they held her interest and then pensioning them off with gifts of serfs and large estates


Paul I (Russian: Па́вел I Петро́вич; Pavel I Petrovich) (1 October [O.S. 20 September] 1754 – 23 March [O.S. 11 March] 1801) was Emperor of Russia from 1796 until his assassination. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, although Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov.Paul remained overshadowed by his mother for most of his life. He adopted the laws of succession to the Russian throne—rules that lasted until the end of the Romanov dynasty and of the Russian Empire. He also intervened in the French Revolutionary Wars and, toward the end of his reign, added Kartli and Kakheti in Eastern Georgia into the empire, which was confirmed by his son and successor Alexander I. Empress Elizabeth died in 1762, when Paul was 8 years old, and he became crown prince with the accession of his father to the throne as Peter III. However, within a matter of months, Paul's mother engineered a coup and not only deposed her husband but, for a long time, was believed to have had him killed by her supporters. It was later found that Peter III probably died due to a fit of apoplexy when exerting himself in a dispute with Prince Feodor, one of his jailers. Some historians believe that he was murdered by a vindictive Alexei Orlov. After the death of Peter III, Catherine then placed herself on the throne in a surpassingly grand and ostentatious coronation ceremony, for which event the Russian Imperial Crown was crafted by court jewellers. The 8-year-old Paul retained his position as crown prince.In 1772, her son and heir, Paul, turned eighteen. Paul and his adviser, Panin, believed he was the rightful tsar of Russia, as the only son of Peter III. His adviser had also taught him that the rule of women endangered good leadership, which was why he was so interested in gaining the throne. Distracting him, Catherine took trouble to find Paul a wife among the minor princesses of the Holy Roman Empire. She chose Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Darmstad, who acquired the Russian name "Natalia Alexeievna"), a daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. The bride's older sister, Frederika Louisa, was already married to the Crown Prince of Prussia.Wilhelmina died in childbirth on 15 April 1776, three years after the wedding. On 7 October 1776, less than six months after the death of his first wife, Paul married again. The bride was the beautiful Sophia Dorothea of Württemberg, who received the new Orthodox name Maria Feodorovna. Paul and Sophie had ten children; nine survived to adulthood. Paul was assassinated.

Alexander I (Russian: Алекса́ндр Па́влович, tr. Aleksándr Pávlovich, IPA: [ɐlʲɪkˈsandr ˈpavɫəvʲɪt͡ɕ]; 23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777 – 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825) was the Emperor of Russia (Tsar) from 1801, the first King of Congress Poland from 1815, and the Grand Duke of Finland from 1809 to his death. He was the eldest son of Emperor Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg.On 9 October 1793, Alexander married Louise of Baden, known as Elizabeth Alexeievna after her conversion to the Orthodox Church. He later told his friend Frederick William III that the marriage, a political match devised by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, regrettably proved to be a misfortune for him and his spouse.Their two children died young. With his mental health deteriorating, Alexander grew increasingly suspicious of those around him, more withdrawn, more religious, and more passive. Some historians conclude his profile "coincides precisely with the schizophrenic prototype: a withdrawn, seclusive, rather shy, introvertive, unaggressive, and somewhat apathetic individual" During his trip he himself caught typhus, from which he died in the southern city of Taganrog on 19 November (O.S.)/1 December 1825. His two brothers disputed who would become tsar—each wanted the other to do so.


Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, tr. Nikolay I Pavlovich; 6 July [O.S. 25 June] 1796 – 2 March [O.S. 18 February] 1855) reigned as Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland from 1825 until 1855. He was the third son of Paul I and younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him. He is mainly remembered in history as a reactionary whose controversial reign was marked by geographical expansion, economic growth and massive industrialisation on the one hand, and centralisation of administrative policies and repression of dissent on the other. Nicholas had a happy marriage that produced a large family; all of their seven children survived childhood On 13 July 1817, Nicholas married Princess Charlotte of Prussia (1798–1860), who thereafter went by the name Alexandra Feodorovna when she converted to Orthodoxy. Charlotte's parents were Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Nicholas and Charlotte were third cousins, as they were both great-great-grandchildren of Frederick William I of Prussia. With two older brothers, it initially seemed unlikely Nicholas would ever become tsar. However, as Alexander and Constantine both failed to produce legitimate sons, Nicholas remained likely to rule one day. In 1825, when Alexander I died suddenly of typhus, Nicholas was caught between swearing allegiance to Constantine and accepting the throne for himself. The interregnum lasted until Constantine, who was in Warsaw at that time, confirmed his refusal.



Alexander II (Russian: Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland from 2 March 1855 until his assassination Alexander Nikolaevich was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia (daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and of Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz). On 16 April 1841, aged 23, Tsarevitch Alexander married Marie of Hesse and by Rhine (8 August 1824 – 3 June 1880) in St. Petersburg; the bride had previously been received into the Russian Orthodox Church, taking the new name of Maria Alexandrovna. Marie was the legal daughter of Ludwig II, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine and Princess Wilhelmina of Baden, although some gossiping questioned whether the Grand Duke Ludwig or Wilhelmina's lover, Baron August von Senarclens de Grancy, was her biological father. Alexander was aware of the question of her paternity The marriage produced six sons and two daughters. On 18 July 1880, less than a month after Empress Maria's death, Alexander married morganatically his mistress Princess Catherine Dolgorukov, with whom he already had four children.


Nicholas Alexandrovich (Russian: Николай Александрович; 20 September [O.S. 8 September] 1843 – 24 April [O.S. 12 April] 1865) was tsesarevich—the heir apparent—of Imperial Russia from 2 March 1855 until his death in 1865. Born at the Alexander Palace in St. Petersburg and nicknamed "Nixa", he was the eldest son of the Tsesarevich Alexander Nikolaevich, eldest son of Emperor Nicholas I, and the Tsarevna Maria Alexandrovna of Russia. In 1855, his paternal grandfather died, and his father succeeded to the throne as Emperor Alexander II. In the summer of 1864, Nicholas became engaged to Princess Dagmar of Denmark. Until 1865, Nicholas was thought to have a strong constitution. During a tour in southern Europe, he contracted an ailment that was initially incorrectly diagnosed as rheumatism. Nicholas's symptoms at that time included back pain and a stiff neck, as well as sensitivity to noise and light. He thought little of his ailments, however, and continued his tour in Italy. His health rapidly worsened, and he was sent to Southern France, but this move brought him no improvement. It was eventually determined that he was suffering from cerebro-spinal meningitis, and it was speculated that this illness of his was caused by a previous accident in a wrestling match, in which Nicholas participated and was thrown down. In the spring of 1865, Nicholas continued to decline, and he died on 12/24 April 1865 in France. On his deathbed, Nicholas expressed the wish that his fiancée become the bride of his younger brother and future tsesarevich, Alexander.


Alexander III (Russian: Александр III Александрович, tr. Aleksandr III Aleksandrovich; 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894)[1] was Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland from 13 March 1881 until his death in 1894. Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich was born on 10 March 1845 at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, the second son and third child of Emperor Alexander II and his first wife Maria Alexandrovna (née Princess Marie of Hesse).Alexander became tsesarevich upon his elder brother Nicholas's sudden death in 1865. On his deathbed the previous tsesarevich was said to have expressed the wish that his fiancée, Princess Dagmar of Denmark, should marry his successor.This wish was swiftly realised when on 9 November [O.S. 28 October] 1866 in the Grand Church of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, Alexander wed Dagmar, who converted to Orthodox Christianity and took the name Maria Feodorovna.The union proved a happy one to the end; unlike nearly all of his predecessors since Peter I, there was no adultery in his marriage.The couple had six children (five of whom survived to adulthood).  On 13 March 1881 (N.S.) Alexander's father, Alexander II, was assassinated by members of the extremist organization Narodnaya Volya. Alexander III disliked the extravagance of the rest of his family. It was also expensive for the Crown to pay so many grand dukes each year. Each one received an annual salary of 250,000 rubles, and grand duchesses received a dowry of a million when they married. He limited the title of grand duke and duchess to only children and male-line grandchildren of emperors. The rest would bear a princely title and the style of Serene Highness. He also forbade morganatic marriages, as well as those outside of the Orthodoxy. In 1894, Alexander III became ill with terminal kidney disease (nephritis). He died in the arms of his wife, and in the presence of his physician, Ernst Viktor von Leyden, at Maly Palace in Livadia on the afternoon of 1 November [O.S. 20 October] 1894 at the age of forty-nine, and was succeeded by his eldest son Tsesarevich Nicholas, who took the throne as Nicholas II.


Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July 1918), known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, was the last Emperor of All Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917. Nicholas was born in the Alexander Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, the eldest child of Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia (née Princess Dagmar of Denmark). He had five younger siblings. On 1 March 1881, following the assassination of his grandfather, Tsar Alexander II, Nicholas became heir apparent upon his father's accession as Alexander III. Though Nicholas was heir-apparent to the throne, his father failed to prepare him for his future role as Tsar. however, as his father was only in his forties, it was expected that it would be many years before Nicholas succeeded to the throne. On 26 November 1894 Nicholas married Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (whose name upon conversion became: Alexandra Feodorovna). The couple had 5 children, 4 daughters and 1 son. Unfortunately their son, Alexei, suffered of haemophilia (which was inherited via his mother). As we all know Nicholas II and his family were murdered / executed during the Russian Revolution.


So:
Michael I (Romanov) --> Ivan IV & Peter I (sons of Michael I; halfbrothers) --> Alexei (son of Peter I) -->  Catherine I (widow of Peter I) --> Peter II (son of Alexei) --> Anna (daughter of Ivan IV) --> Ivan V (great grandson of Ivan IV, via his daughter Catherine) --> Elisabeth (daughter of Peter I) --> Peter III (son of Elisabeth's elder sister Anna) --> Catherine II (wife of Peter III, who was overthrown by her) --> Paul I (son of Peter III and Catherine II) --> Alexander I (eldest son of Paul I) --> Nicholas I (3rd son of Paul I; younger brother to Alexander I) --> Alexander II (eldest son of Nicholas I) --> Nicholas (eldest son of Alexander II, died as tsarevich) --> Alexander III (2nd son of Alexander II) --> Nicholas II (eldest son of Alexander III).


After the Russian Revolution the route of succession and claimants are getting more chaotic again. Currently there are at least 2 claimants to the Headship of the House of Romanov / Russian throne.
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Malenkaya

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« Reply #502 on: January 19, 2021, 12:14:21 AM »

No announcement of a royal engagement between Georgie and Rebecca yet? Darn.
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« Reply #503 on: January 22, 2021, 02:41:50 PM »

originally Andere tijden (literally Other times) is a Dutch tv show about historical topics. Therefore they have access to various old images, videos and sound (often from the Dutch institute of Beeld & Geluid (Image and Sound). There were also several items put online, on Youtube. Among others one about the Russian Revolution and the Romanovs:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSnf46dhuUk
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« Reply #504 on: January 22, 2021, 02:44:39 PM »

No announcement of a royal engagement between Georgie and Rebecca yet? Darn.

It was posted in another RD topic about them (https://royaldish.com/index.php?topic=6591.180)

http://www.russianlegitim...ctoria-romanova-bettarini
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« Reply #505 on: January 22, 2021, 09:16:27 PM »

No announcement of a royal engagement between Georgie and Rebecca yet? Darn.

It was posted in another RD topic about them (https://royaldish.com/index.php?topic=6591.180)

http://www.russianlegitim...ctoria-romanova-bettarini

I posted January 19th, they announced January 20th. Thank you Georgie and Rebecca! This is going to be the wedding of the year!
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« Reply #506 on: January 23, 2021, 12:23:14 AM »

https://www.dailymail.co....nd-Rebecca-Bettarini.html
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« Reply #507 on: January 23, 2021, 01:46:03 AM »


"He is also distantly related to the British royal family, and is the great-great-great-great grandson of Nicholas II of Russia, who was cousins with Britain's George V, and Alexandra Fedorovna, who was Queen Victoria’s granddaughter."

 Thinking

I think the Daily Fail needs a proofreader.
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« Reply #508 on: January 23, 2021, 08:31:01 AM »


"He is also distantly related to the British royal family, and is the great-great-great-great grandson of Nicholas II of Russia, who was cousins with Britain's George V, and Alexandra Fedorovna, who was Queen Victoria’s granddaughter."

 Thinking

I think the Daily Fail needs a proofreader.

Interesting. So all the frauds claiming they were Anastasia were right after all.
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« Reply #509 on: January 23, 2021, 12:50:59 PM »


"He is also distantly related to the British royal family, and is the great-great-great-great grandson of Nicholas II of Russia, who was cousins with Britain's George V, and Alexandra Fedorovna, who was Queen Victoria’s granddaughter."

 Thinking

I think the Daily Fail needs a proofreader.

Interesting. So all the frauds claiming they were Anastasia were right after all.

Ha so will Haz and Wife show up ? No real Brit royals will... irrespective of where it is.... Russia.... not likely.... or Spain where he grew up or Italy where her family comes from 😀
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