In the past, and still now and then, I was fascinated by the different branches of the Austrian Habsburg (left the Spanish line out of it):
The House of Habsburg (alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English; German: Haus Habsburg), also officially called the House of Austria (German: Haus Österreich; Spanish: Casa de Austria), was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1440 until their extinction in the male line in 1740 and after the death of Francis I from 1765 until its dissolution in 1806.
The house also produced kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galicia, Portugal and Spain with their respective colonies, as well as rulers of several principalities in the Netherlands and Italy and emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary and Mexico. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried including the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil and House of Habsburg of his wife, Empress Maria Leopoldina.
The house takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a fortress built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau, who named his fortress Habsburg. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the fortress name as his own, adding "Count of Habsburg" to his title. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. In 1273, Count Radbot's seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg became Roman-German King. He moved the family's power base to the Duchy of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.
A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to vastly expand its domains to include Burgundy, Spain and its colonial empire, Bohemia, Hungary, and other territories. In the 16th century, the family separated into the senior Spanish and the junior Austrian branches, who settled their mutual claims in the Ońate treaty.
The House of Habsburg became extinct in the male line in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch became extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. It was succeeded by the descendants of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa's marriage to Francis III, Duke of Lorraine. The successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Haus Habsburg-Lothringen). Since the House of Habsburg-Lorraine is referred to today as the House of Habsburg, historians use the appellation of the "Habsburg Monarchy" for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the family until 1918.
> House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line
: Holy Roman Emperors, Kings of Hungary and Bohemia, Archdukes of Austria, Emperors of Austria:
This line was formed through the marriage of Empress Maria Theresa (German: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780; eldest daughter of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor) and Francis of Lorraine (who would become Francis I, Emperor of Austria.
>House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany
Francis I assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification. Archduke Sigismund of Austria (Sigismund Otto Maria Josef Gottfried Henrich Erik Leopold Ferdinand Von Habsburg-Lothringen; born 21 April 1966) is the current head of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and titular Grand Duke of Tuscany. His great-great grandfather Ferdinand IV was the last Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1999, Sigismund married Elyssa Edmonstone (11 September 1973), the only daughter of Sir Archibald Bruce Edmonstone, of Duntreath, 7th Baronet by his second wife Juliet Elizabeth Deakin. The couple are divorced since 25 June 2013, with annulment in 2016. The couple have three children, Archduke Leopold, Grand Prince of Tuscany, Archduchess Tatyana and Archduke Maximilian>House of Habsburg-Lorraine (Austria-Este): Dukes of Modena
The House of Habsburg-Este (Italian: Casa d'Asburgo-Este; German: Haus Österreich-Este), holders of the title of Archduke of Austria-Este (Italian: Arciduca d'Austria-Este; German: Erzherzog von Österreich-Este), is a cadet branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and also descends from the House of Este. It was created in 1771 with the marriage between Ferdinand of Habsburg-Lorraine and Maria Beatrice d'Este, only daughter of the Duke of Modena, Ercole III d'Este. After the death of Ercole III in 1803, the Modena ruling branch of the Este family's male line ended, and the Habsburg-Estes inherited his possessions in Italy It was lost to Italian unification. Francis V, the last duke, was deposed. Francis V, Duke of Modena and Reggio (1846–59, died 1875) withdrew to his estates in Austria. However, Francis V had decided to retain the Este name in the Habsburg family, and left most of his huge estate to his young cousin Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, with certain conditions, one of which is that the heir and future heirs use the name of Este. The non-territorial property of the Este family thus fell to the line of Archduke Charles Louis, younger brother to then Emperor Francis Joseph, Austria-Este then becoming a sort of "secundogeniture" title within the Austrian imperial family. Although the first heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914), was not a descendant of the last Este duchess, Mary Beatrice of Modena), he took the name Austria-Este. In 1896 he became the heir presumptive of the Austrian Empire and, according to the terms of the secundogeniture, could not combine the Austria-Este inheritance with that of the main line of the House of Habsburg (i.e., the Austro-Hungarian Empire, but he was assassinated 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo before becoming emperor. Because Franz Ferdinand's children were born in morganatic marriage (see House of Hohenberg), on 16 April 1917 Emperor Charles I of Austria, as head of the House of Habsburg, issued letters patent conferring the name, arms and patrimony of Austria-Este on his son, Archduke Robert, and his future issue according to masculine primogeniture. Through his mother Zita of Bourbon-Parma, Robert happened to be a descendant of Duke Ercole III of Modena and Reggio as well, and thus the blood of the last Este dukes was joined with the name Austria-Este. On Robert's death his eldest son, Archduke Lorenz, born 1955, by his wife, Princess Margherita of Savoy, succeeded him in that role. Archduke of Austria-Este (16 December 1955) is a member of the Belgian royal family by his marriage with Princess Astrid of Belgium. Since 1996 he is also head of the House of Austria-Este, a cadet branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. He is the second child of Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este and his wife Princess Margherita of Savoy-Aosta. On 22 September 1984 in Brussels, Lorenz married Princess Astrid of Belgium, the only daughter of the then-Prince and Princess of Ličge, later King Albert II and Queen Paola. The couple have five children>House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico
Maximilian, the adventurous second son of Archduke Franz Karl (younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I), was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a daughter of King Leopold I of Belgium and a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro, in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez.> House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duke of Teschen
Archduke Charles Louis John Joseph Laurentius of Austria, Duke of Teschen (German: Erzherzog Karl Ludwig Johann Joseph Lorenz von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen)(5 September 1771 – 30 April 1847) was an Austrian field-marshal, the third son of Emperor Leopold II and his wife, Maria Luisa of Spain. He was also the younger brother of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. His father, then Grand Duke of Tuscany, generously permitted Charles's childless aunt Archduchess Marie Christine of Austria and her husband Albert of Saxe-Teschen to adopt and raise the boy in Vienna. Rule of the Duchy ended with Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen (Friedrich Maria Albrecht Wilhelm Karl)(4 June 1856 – 30 December 1936) who was a member of the House of Habsburg. The son of Karl Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his wife Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. When Friedrich's uncle Archduke Albert, Duke of Teschen died in 1895, he and his brothers each inherited large estates. Friedrich owned properties at Ungarisch-Altenburg (now Mosonmagyaróvár in Hungary), Belleje, Saybusch (now Żywiec in Poland), Seelowitz (now Židlochovice) and Frýdek in the Czech Republic, and Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia). His Vienna residence, the Palais-Albrecht, housed the Albertina art collection which he owned. On 8 October 1878 Friedrich married at Château L'Hermitage in Belgium, Princess Isabella of Cro˙ (1856–1931), daughter of Rudolf, Duke of Cro˙, and his wife Princess Natalie of Ligne. They had nine children together. It was his house which was increasingly visited by Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir of Emperor Franz Joseph I) to court Countess Sophie Chotek, a lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Isabella (while the last one thought he was courting one of her daughters). After World War I the governments of Austria and Czechoslovakia confiscated all of Friedrich's properties within their borders. These included his palace in Vienna and his art collection. He retained his properties in Hungary however. In 1929 he won a court case requiring compensation from the Czechoslovak government.Friedrich died at Ungarisch-Altenburg (Magyaróvár, now Mosonmagyaróvár) in 1936. His death was the biggest royal event for Hungary since the coronation of King Karl in 1916. The funeral and burial in the Pfarrkirche in Mosonmagyaróvár was attended by his nephew, the exiled King of Spain; by numerous archdukes; by all the surviving Austro-Hungarian field marshals; by personal representatives of Hitler; by members of the House of Savoy; by the diplomatic corps; by a son of exiled German Kaiser Wilhelm; by representatives of the governments of Germany, Italy and Austria, and by Hungary's Regent, Miklós Horthy and his wife. There were members of the Hungarian government and delegates of the German and Austrian in attendance as well. Entire battalions of the Royal Hungarian Army were present to pay their last respects to their former Supreme Commander.> House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma
The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.