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Principessa

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« on: March 29, 2016, 06:08:50 PM »

Europe had over time various aristocratic dynasties, the so called House of. Some are still in power/reigning, some had interesting stories/descendants, some had interesting links to other Houses and so on.

The House of Bourbon:
A European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Descendants have been monarchs in Navarra, France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Parma.

The house & related:
- House of Bourbon
- House of Bourbon-Orl?ans (French)
   - House of Orleans-Braganca (Portuguese/Brazilian)
   - House of Borb?n (Spanish)
   - House of Alecon-Orl?ans (French)
- House of Bourbon-Parma
- House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
- House of Bourbon-Cond?
- House of Bourbon-Conti
- House of Bourbon-Vend?me

The only Bourbon relative currently still in power is the Spanish House of Borb?n, with king Felipe VI.

The House of Bourbon-Parma delivered the Duke of Parma. Currently they only use the title Duke of Parma, but not lay territorial claims. By marriages the members of this Bourbon House are related to several other European Royal Houses, such as the House of Habsburg, the House of Nassau (both Nassau- Weilburg and Orange-Nassau) and the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Kohary (Bulgarian line)

The House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies used to have two claimants for the throne of  the Two Sicilies (and head of the House). And if I am correct the Spanish king also has "King of Two Sicilies" as one of his titles.

The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha:
Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it is the royal house of several European monarchies, and branches currently reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I, and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V changed the name of his branch from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor in 1917. The same happened in 1920 in Belgium, where it was changed to "van Belgi?" (Dutch) or "de Belgique" (French).

The House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koh?ry is the Catholic cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. It was founded with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, second son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, with Princess Maria Antonia Koh?ry de Cs?br?g. Among its descendants are the last three kings of Portugal (Luis I, Carlos I, Manuel II), and the last three Tsars of Bulgaria (Ferdinand I, Boris III, Simeon II).

The House of Nassau:
A European royal house of German origin.In current times represented by the Dutch (Orange-Nassau) and Luxembourgish (Nassau-Weilburg) royals. The Grandduke of Luxembourg uses the "Duke of Nassau" as secondary title (being the most senior member of the eldest branch of the House), but not to lay any territorial claims to the former Duchy of Nassau

The House of Habsburg:
Their principal roles (including the roles of their cadet branches) were as:
- Holy Roman Emperors (intermittently from 1273 until 1806), Kings of Germany and Kings of the Romans
- Rulers of Austria (as Dukes from 1278 until 1453; as Archdukes from 1453 until 1806/1918)
- King of Bohemia (1306?1307, 1437?1439, 1453?1457, 1526?1918)
- Kings of Hungary and Croatia (1526?1918)
- Kings of Spain (1516?1700)
- King of Portugal (1581?1640)
- King of Galicia and Lodomeria (1772?1918)
- Grand Prince of Transylvania (1690?1867)
Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.

The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England (Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of France (Queen consort), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Empire of Russia, Kingdom of Croatia, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland (Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Habsburg Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the sixteenth century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century. The senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. The remaining Austrian branch went extinct in the male line in 1740 with the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, and completely in 1780 with the death of his eldest daughter Maria Theresa of Austria. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine. The new successor house styled itself formally as House of Habsburg-Lorraine (German: Habsburg-Lothringen), although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. The founders of the Habsburg-Lorraine line are Empress Maria Theresa (of Habsburg) and her husband Emperor Francis I (of Lorraine). The current day Habsburg descend from this couple.

The House of Romanov
was the second dynasty, after the Rurik dynasty, to rule over Russia, which reigned from 1613 until the abdication of Czar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917.

The direct male line of the Romanovs came to an end when Elizabeth of Russia died in 1762. After an era of dynastic crisis, the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg, ascended the throne in 1762 with Peter III, a grandson of Peter I. All rulers from the middle of the 18th century to the revolution of 1917 were descended from that branch. Though officially known as the House of Romanov, these descendants of the Romanov and Oldenburg Houses are sometimes referred to as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov.

During and after the February revolution of 1917 members of the Romanov family were murdered or went into exile. In current times there are several claimants to the headship of the House.

The House of Hohenzollern:
a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.

The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch (which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch.)
The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, and also ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. And the Brandenburg-Prussian branch went on to become Kings of Prussia and Emperors of Germany.

The current head of the Brandenburg-Prussian branch is Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia.
The current head of the Swabian branch is Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern (-Sigmaringen)
The claimant for the Romanian throne is the last king Michael I. He declared his oldest daughter Margareta as his heir. Michael's grandson Nicholas (son of daughter princess Elena) was third in line to the defunct throne of Romania according to a new family statute enacted in 2007,  which was abrogated in 2015.

The House of Bernadotte
the current royal house of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905, it was also the royal house of Norway. Its founder, Charles XIV John of Sweden (who was born Jean Bernadotte), was adopted by Charles XIII of Sweden, who belonged to the House of Holstein-Gottorp which was becoming extinct.

The House of Oldenburg
is a European royal house of North German origin. It is one of Europe's most influential royal houses with branches that rule or have ruled in Denmark, Greece, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Schleswig, Holstein, and Oldenburg. The current Queen of Denmark, the King of Norway and the ex-King of Greece, as well as consorts of Greece and the United Kingdom, belong to this house.

The main line of the House:
- Kings of Denmark (1448?1863)
- Kings of Norway (1450?1814)
- Kings of Sweden (1457?64, 1497?1501 and 1520?21)
- Counts of Oldenburg (1101?1773)
- Dukes of Schleswig and Counts of Holstein (1460?1544)
- Dukes of Schleswig and Holstein ruling only part of the Duchies (1544?1721/1773)
- Dukes of Schleswig (1721?1864) (ruling the entire Duchy)
- Dukes of Holstein (1773?1864, ruling the entire Duchy)

Branches of the House:
- Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, extinct
1.claimant Duke of Schleswig-Holstein in 1863
- Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gl?cksburg
1.Duke of Schleswig-Holstein
2.Kings of Denmark (since 1863)
3.King of Iceland (1918?44)
4.Kings of the Hellenes (1863?1924, 1935?73) Although Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, his sons and their children are patrilineally descended from this branch, by declaration of the British monarch, his sons and other descendants bearing the style "Royal Highness" are de jure members of the House of Windsor.[2]
5.Kings of Norway (since 1905)
- Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp
1.Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp (1544?1739)
- Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov (commonly still called Romanov)
1.Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp (1739?73)
2.Tsars of Russia (1762 and 1796?1917)
- Holstein-Gottorp (Swedish line), extinct
1.Kings of Sweden (1751?1818)
2.King of Norway (1814?18)
- Holstein-Gottorp (Grand ducal line)
1.Dukes, later Grand Dukes of Oldenburg (1773?1918)
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« Reply #1 on: March 29, 2016, 06:31:22 PM »

The House of Wittelsbach
a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.

Members of the family reigned as Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria (1180?1918), Counts Palatine of the Rhine (1214?1803 and 1816?1918), Margraves of Brandenburg (1323?1373), Counts of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland (1345?1432), Elector-Archbishops of Cologne (1583?1761), Dukes of J?lich and Berg (1614?1794/1806), Kings of Sweden (1441?1448 and 1654?1720) and Dukes of Bremen-Verden (1654?1719).

The family also provided two Holy Roman Emperors (1328?1347/1742?1745), one King of the Romans (1400?1410), two Anti-Kings of Bohemia (1619?20/1742?43), one King of Hungary (1305?1309), one King of Denmark and Norway (1440?1447) and one King of Greece (1832?1862).

Early one the family was divided in an Bavarian and Palatine branch. With the death of Charles Theodore in 1799 all Wittelsbach land in Bavaria and the Palatinate was reunited under Maximilian IV Joseph, a member of the branch Palatinate-Zweibr?cken-Birkenfeld. At the time there were two surviving branches of the Wittelsbach family: Palatinate-Zweibr?cken (headed by Maximilian Joseph) and Palatinate-Birkenfeld (headed by Count Palatine William). Maximilian Joseph inherited Charles Thedore's title of Elector of Bavaria, while William was compensated with the title of Duke in Bavaria. The form Duke in Bavaria was selected because in 1506 primogeniture had been established in the House of Wittelsbach resulting in there being only one Reigning Duke of Bavaria at any given time. Maximillian Joseph assumed the title of king as Maximilian I Joseph on January 1, 1806.

Well known Empress Elisabeth of Austria (Sisi)(n?e Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria) descended from both the Royal Bavarian Line as the Duke in Bavaria line. Because of her mother, princess Ludovika, was the sixth child of  King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and her father, Duke Maximilian in Bavaria, was member of the junior branch.

Another Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria (named after her aunt) married King Albert I of Belgium. In current times Franz, Duke of Bavaria is the head  of the House of Wittelsbach. Franz has never married. The heir presumptive to the headship of the House of Wittelsbach is his brother Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria. Because Max has 5 daughters but no sons, he is followed in the line of succession by his and Franz's first cousin Prince Luitpold.

Prince Max was born a Prince of Bavaria, as a member of the royal line of the House of Wittelsbach, but has been using the title "Herzog in Bayern" or Duke in Bavaria, since he was adopted as an adult by his great-uncle, Duke Ludwig Wilhelm in Bavaria, the last bearer of that title of a junior branch of the House of Wittelsbach. His oldest daughter Sophie is known as Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein (after her marriage to Alois, Hereditary Prince and Regent of Liechtenstein.)

The House of Wettin:
a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors and kings that once ruled territories of present-day German states of Saxony and Thuringia for 953 years. The royal house is one of the oldest of Europe. Its origins can be traced back to the town of Wettin, Saxony-Anhalt.

The family divided into two ruling branches in 1485 by Treaty of Leipzig: the Ernestine and Albertine branches. The older Ernestine branch played a key role during the Protestant Reformation. Many ruling monarchs outside Germany were later tied to its cadet branch Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The Albertine branch, while less prominent, ruled the most of Saxony and played a part in Polish history.

Agnates of the House of Wettin have, at various times, ascended the thrones of Great Britain, Portugal, Bulgaria, Poland, Saxony, and Belgium. Only the British and Belgian lines retain their thrones today.

The junior Albertine branch ruled as Electors (1547?1806) and Kings of Saxony (1806?1918) and also played a role in Polish history: two Wettin were Kings of Poland (between 1697?1763) and a third ruled the Duchy of Warsaw (1807?1814) as a satellite of Napoleon.  The present head of the Albertine "House of Saxony" is his great-grandson Prince Ruediger of Saxony, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Meissen (* 23 December 1953). The headship of Prince R?diger is however contested by his second cousin, Alexander (* 1954), son of Roberto Afif, later by change of name Mr Gessaphe, and Princess Maria Anna of Saxony, a sister of the childless former head of the Albertines, Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen (d. 2012) who had adopted his nephew, granting him the name Prince of Saxony, contrary to the rules of male descent under the Salic Law.

Still Existing Ernestines lines:
- Grand Dukes of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
- Dukes of Saxe-Meiningen
- Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
- Kings and Queen of the United Kingdom (House of Windsor, originally House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
- Kings of Bulgaria (House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, sometimes known as "Sakskoburggotski")
- Kings of the Belgians (House van Belgi? or de Belgique or von Belgien, "of  Belgium", originally House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
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« Reply #2 on: March 29, 2016, 06:39:14 PM »

House of Grimaldi
The Grimaldi descend from Grimaldo, a Genoese statesman at the time of the early Crusades. According to the story a member of the family concurred the fort/castle of Monaco by infiltration dressed as monk.

When looking at the Grimaldi line the royals predominantly married French nobels. Also a tale of adoption (of illegitimate children) and related.

The grandmother of current reigning Prince Albert II, princess Charlotte, was the illegitimate daughter of Marie Juliette Louvet, a cabaret singer, and Louis Grimaldi. Louis had no legitimate children or siblings, so even before he succeeded his father as Prince Louis II the principality sought to forestall a succession crisis, anticipating that its neighbor, the Republic of France, might take it amiss if the throne fell someday to Louis's legal next of kin. That heir was his cousin Wilhelm, 2nd Duke of Urach (1864-1928) who, although born and raised in Monte Carlo as the son of Princess Florestine of Monaco, was a German subject, property owner and patrilineal family member, albeit morganatically, of the ruling kings of W?rttemberg. Louis adopted Charlotte in Paris on 16 May 1919, thereby entitling her to the surname Grimaldi, while her grandfather bestowed upon her the traditional title of the princedom's heir, Duchess of Valentinois, for life. Charlotte became heir presumptive to the throne as Hereditary Princess when her grandfather died and her father inherited the princely crown in 1922.
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« Reply #3 on: March 29, 2016, 06:47:42 PM »

The House of Savoy:
is one of the oldest royal families in the world, being founded in year 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to the attainment of kingly dignity (Sicily) in 1713. Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until the end of World War II and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century.

The title Duke of Aosta was given to various princes of the dynasty of Sardinia. It remained in the branch of Prince Amedeo of Savoia, the second son of king Victor Emanuel II of Italy, as he was the first ever cadet prince Duke of Aosta who left male heirs. The current Duke of Aosta is prince Amedeo (b. 1943)

Currently the leadership of the House of Savoy is contested by two cousins: Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples (b. 1937), who used to claim the title of King of Italy, and Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, who still claims the title of Duke of Savoy.
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« Reply #4 on: March 29, 2016, 07:05:49 PM »

The House of Braganca
officially the Most Serene House of Braganza (Seren?ssima Casa de Bragan?a), or, in Brazil, the Most August House of Braganza (August?ssima Casa de Bragan?a), is an important imperial, royal, and noble dynasty of Portuguese origin.

The House evolved from being powerful dukes of Portuguese nobility, to ruling as the monarchs of Portugal and the Algarves, from 1640 to 1910, and as monarchs of Brazil, from 1815 to 1889.

In 1808, faced with impending Napoleonic invasion, the Braganzas transferred their royal court to the State of Brazil. Some time after they had crossed the Atlantic, a royal decree changed the status of Brazil from a Portuguese colony into kingdom alongside Portugal, and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed. In 1821, D. Jo?o VI, who succeeded in 1816, returned to Portugal. D. Pedro, Royal of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, the eldest son of King Jo?o VI of Portugal and also regent in Brazil proclaimed himself Emperor D. Pedro I of an independent Brazil in 1822, founding the Empire of Brazil. D. Pedro I ruled Brazil until 1831, when he abdicated in favor of his young son D. Pedro II, and returned to Portugal to aid his daughter D. Maria II (who was Queen of Portugal). In 1828, Maria II was forced into exile by her uncle, the new King Miguel I. Though exiled, Miguel would not give up his claim to the throne and would establish the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza. The strategic marriages of his children to the various royal houses of Europe would earn him the nickname the "Grandfather of Europe".

Therefore three branches of the House of Braganca followed after King Jo?o VI of Portugal:
- Portuguese reigning branch (through Maria II)
- Brazilian reigning branch (through Pedro II)
- Miguelist branch (through D. Miguel)

King Manuel II was the last king of Portugal. Before his death, King Manuel II reconciled with the rival Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza, who had claimed the Portuguese throne since 1834, in opposition to the Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dynasty. So, with his death, the claim to the throne of Portugal passed to the pretender, Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza.

The current pretender to the throne is Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza (1945), of the Miguelist branch. ( 24th Duke of Braganza, 8th Prince Royal of Portugal)

Non Agnatic branches:
- The House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha:
Result of the marriage of Queen Maria II and Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Koh?ry. Queen Maria II, and her descendants still continued to style themselves as members of the House of Braganza, as opposed to Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Braganza. As there are no living descendants left in Portugal, the claim to the crown of Portugal is again with the House of Braganza.
- House of Orl?ans-Braganza:
It is a cadet branch of the House of Orl?ans, and descended from the House of Braganza. The house was founded with the marriage between Isabel of Braganza, Princess Imperial of Brazil, and Gaston of Orl?ans, Count of Eu. The House's members are the current claimants to the Brazilian throne.
- House of Bourbon-Braganza
an Iberian noble house that has its origins in a royal marriage of Infante Gabriel of Spain (1752?1788) married Infanta Maria Ana Vit?ria of Portugal (1768?1788). Their surviving son, Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal (1786?1812), was brought up in the Portuguese court, first in Lisbon and, after 1807, in Rio de Janeiro. Until 1793, he was the only grandson of Queen Maria I, therefore considered as a potential heir of the Portuguese throne. As his father, he also married a Portuguese Infanta, his first cousin once removed Infanta Maria Teresa of Portugal (1793?1874). They had one child Infante Sebastian of Portugal and Spain (1811?1875), Infante of Portugal by royal edict (issued in 1812), but only became a Spanish infant in 1824 by royal edict of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, as he was only a distant descendant of King Charles III. When the Portuguese Royal Family returned to Europe, Sebastian went to live in Spain (1822) but, due to his support to the Carlist pretender, he returned to Portugal (1865), where King Lu?s I gave him a warm reception. The male line of the family has become extinct, but distant descendants are still represented among the Spanish nobility
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« Reply #5 on: March 30, 2016, 01:51:12 AM »

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The House of Bernadotte
the current royal house of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905, it was also the royal house of Norway. Its founder, Charles XIV John of Sweden (who was born Jean Bernadotte), was adopted by Charles XIII of Sweden, who belonged to the House of Holstein-Gottorp which was becoming extinct.

The cool thing is, that over time, the descendants of the very French Jean-Baptiste and his very French wife Desiree Clary intermarried with the female line descendants of the previous royal houses of Sweden, so Victoria and her children are tied in with the House of Holstein-Gottorp (Bernadotte's predecessor House) as well as the more ancient House of Vasa.

However, once one thinks about it, most of the Houses that survive to this day (ruling or not) can claim that. Just look at the Brits: I'm sure that someone out there with a love of historical trivia knows how many times the Queen is descended from The Conqueror, and how many Houses Prince William can claim that have previously sat on the throne through the centuries, from both sides of the sheets. The Russians, the same, the House of Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp is descended from the first Tsar, Michael Romanov, many times through female lines. And France and Spain, because they intermarried all the time, the same.

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« Reply #6 on: March 30, 2016, 08:50:29 AM »

Thank you for all the info pulled together Principessa  Thumb up Nice work and thanks for sharing  Star

The intermarriages between all the current and former reigning families is fascinating. Nearly all of them are or have been related in the past.
I once found out Louis XVI of France and his wife Marie Antoinette were both direct descendants of Mary Queen of Scots for example !
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« Reply #7 on: March 30, 2016, 11:48:01 AM »

Quote
The House of Bernadotte
the current royal house of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905, it was also the royal house of Norway. Its founder, Charles XIV John of Sweden (who was born Jean Bernadotte), was adopted by Charles XIII of Sweden, who belonged to the House of Holstein-Gottorp which was becoming extinct.

The cool thing is, that over time, the descendants of the very French Jean-Baptiste and his very French wife Desiree Clary intermarried with the female line descendants of the previous royal houses of Sweden, so Victoria and her children are tied in with the House of Holstein-Gottorp (Bernadotte's predecessor House) as well as the more ancient House of Vasa.

However, once one thinks about it, most of the Houses that survive to this day (ruling or not) can claim that. Just look at the Brits: I'm sure that someone out there with a love of historical trivia knows how many times the Queen is descended from The Conqueror, and how many Houses Prince William can claim that have previously sat on the throne through the centuries, from both sides of the sheets. The Russians, the same, the House of Romanov-Holstein-Gottorp is descended from the first Tsar, Michael Romanov, many times through female lines. And France and Spain, because they intermarried all the time, the same.



It is very interesting to see how intertwined the House of Oldenburg (incl. cadet branches) is within the European royal and noble families.

Prince Philip is descending from the cadet branch Holstein-Gottorp. But there have been Holstein-Gottorp members in the British royal family before.  

Queen Victoria's oldest son, prince Albert Edward (the later King Edward VII) married princess Alexandra of Denmark. Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gl?cksburg and her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel. Growing up as a prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gl?cksburg, a junior branch of the House of Oldenburg which had ruled Denmark since 1448, Christian was originally not in the immediate line of succession to the Danish throne. However, in 1852, Christian was chosen as heir to the Danish monarchy in light of the expected extinction of the senior line of the House of Oldenburg. Upon the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark in 1863, Christian acceded to the throne as the first Danish monarch of the House of Gl?cksburg
The six children of Christian and Louise married into other royal families across Europe, earning him the sobriquet "the father-in-law of Europe".

The youngest daughter of Edward VII and Alexandra, Maud, married her first cousin prince Carl of Denmark. Therefore an extra tie to the family. Carl later became King Haakon VII of Norway, which made Maud queen. Their only child, prince Alexander, became crown prince Olav (later king Olav V of Norway). The current day royal family of Norway descend from Haakon and Maud.

Queen Victoria's 3rd daughter, princess Helena, married Prince Christian of of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. Their 2nd son Albert became the head of the House of Oldenburg and also the Duke of Augustenborg in Danish titulary and the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein between 1921 and 1931.

In 1921, the Prince succeeded as the head of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg of the House of Schleswig-Holstein, following his childless cousin Duke Ernst Gunther of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg. This was the senior branch of the House of Oldenburg, to which the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gl?cksburg, the King of Denmark, the King of Norway, the King of the Hellenes, the former Grand Duke of Oldenburg and the Russian Imperial Family belonged. As the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and as the Head of the House of Oldenburg, Duke Albert was succeeded by his distant cousin Friedrich Ferdinand, Duke of Glucksburg (who happened to be also the husband of a daughter of Albert's uncle Frederick August of Augustenborg).

Albert never married, so had no official legitimate offspring. But he fathered an illegitimate daughter, Valerie Marie

Victoria's great grandson, prince George (Duke of Kent) married his second cousin Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark. Marina came from the Greek Royal Family, which descended from King George I, former known as prince Vilhelm of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Gl?cksburg (Denmark). A lineage which also explain the addition of "and Denmark". Another tie yet again. Also Marina was a first cousin to prince Philip, the consort of Queen Elizabeth II. His father, prince Andrew (1882 - 1942), was a younger brother of Marina's father, prince Nicholas (1872 - 1938). The current 'Kent line' of the British Royal Family descends from George and Marina.
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« Reply #8 on: March 30, 2016, 11:50:07 AM »

BTW it is scary to notice all those interfamily marriages in particular the Habsburg and Bourbon Houses. Uncles marrying their nieces, children with genetically speaking only one set of grandparents, etc  Nerves
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« Reply #9 on: March 30, 2016, 12:12:36 PM »

Queen Victoria was related to the House of Wettin (and its cadet branch Saxe Coburg and Gotha) by her mother, princess Viktoria (n?e of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld). Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Another tie to the House of Wettin.

Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe".

Previously Victoria's uncle, prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, had been married to former British heir princess Charlotte.  Leopold was a younger brother of princess Viktoria and Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Albert's father). Leopold became a widower when his wife (and child) died in childbirth.  Leopold was crowned in Belgium on 21 July 1831 as King Leopold I of Belgium. The current royals of Belgium descend from him. It has been said it was Leopold who arranged the meeting and match of Victoria and Albert

After an rearrangement of the Ernestine Duchies Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld became Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Ernest  received Gotha, but had to cede Saalfeld to Saxe-Meiningen. Therefore prince Albert is known as Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. And was this name passed on to the British and Belgium royal descendants

Another brother of Ernest I, Leopold and Viktoria: prince Ferdinand married Princess Maria Antonia Koh?ry de Cs?br?g et Szitnya, daughter and heiress of Ferenc J?zsef, F?rst Koh?ry de Cs?br?g et Szitnya. When Antonia's father died in 1826, she inherited his estates in Hungary. Ferdinand then added the surname Koh?ry to his own. This line leads to Portugal and Bulgaria.  As their oldest son, prince Ferdinand, married Queen Maria II of Portugal (became Prince consort (1836) and jure uxoris King of Portugal as Fernando II). In turn the Portuguese granddaughter Infanta Maria Ana married king George of Saxony, and was the mother of the last king of Saxony. Ferdinand and Maria Antonia's second son August was the father of prince Ferdinand, who became Czar of Bulgaria.


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« Reply #10 on: March 30, 2016, 04:42:15 PM »

Thank you for all the info pulled together Principessa  Thumb up Nice work and thanks for sharing  Star

The intermarriages between all the current and former reigning families is fascinating. Nearly all of them are or have been related in the past.
I once found out Louis XVI of France and his wife Marie Antoinette were both direct descendants of Mary Queen of Scots for example !


Thanks  Blush  Smiley
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« Reply #11 on: March 30, 2016, 04:51:29 PM »

I have to confess....due to my studies and love for history I became really interested and fascinated in Royal Genealogy. As the Royal lineages are often well documented and known (believing most of it to be true  Wink ) they are good to see family relations and to follow for example (hereditary) diseases. In the last case the example of Haemophilia in Queen Victoria and her offspring is often used.  

Off course you will also encounter the effects of inbreeding. Particular example is Carlos II of the Spanish Habsburg. Known as "the Bewitched" (Spanish: el Hechizado), he is noted for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities (the product of generations of inbreeding between the Habsburgs)?along with his consequent ineffectual rule. His parents, Philip IV of Spain and  Mariana of Austria, were uncle and niece.

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« Reply #12 on: March 30, 2016, 05:57:01 PM »

House of Hanover
a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Brunswick-L?neburg (German: Braunschweig-L?neburg), the Kingdom of Hanover, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It succeeded the House of Stuart as monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714 and held that office until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.

The House of Hanover is the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este.

The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) was a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century. The House of Este ([ˈɛste] Italian: Casa d'Este, originally House of Welf-Este) is a European princely dynasty. It is one of the most ancient noble dynasties in Europe.

In 1837 with the inauguration of Queen Victoria, the personal union of the thrones of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended. Succession to the Hanoverian throne was regulated by semi-Salic law (agnatic-cognatic), which gave priority to all male lines before female lines, so that it passed not to Queen Victoria but to her uncle, the Duke of Cumberland. In 1901, when Queen Victoria died, her son and heir Edward VII became the first British Monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward taking his family name from that of his father, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The descendants of the Duke of Cumberland are still in line of succession to the British throne (if they fulfilled the additional conditions).

The Kingdom of Hanover came to an end in 1866 when it was annexed by Prussia. The 1866 rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern was settled only by the 1913 marriage of Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick.

Another Oldenburg twist in this house. Ernst August, Crown Prince of Hanover, Heir of Brunswick, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, who was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884, was married to Princess Thyra of Denmark. Ernst August met Thyra while visiting his second cousin Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII). Thyra was the youngest sister of Albert Edward's wife princess Alexandra of Denmark. BTW the story goes in her youth, Thyra had fallen in love with Vilhelm Frimann Marcher, a Lieutenant in the Cavalry, which resulted in a pregnancy. She apparently gave birth to a girl and was put up for adoption.

A grandson of Ernst August & Thyra, prince Georg, would marry widowed princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark. With this marriage prince Georg became the brother in law of prince Philip, who was the younger brother of Sophie.

A granddaughter of Ernst August & Thyra, princess Frederica, would marry King Paul I of the Hellenes (Greece). Subsequently their oldest son, King Constantin II of the Hellenes, would marry princess Anne Marie of Denmark. A double link to the Oldenburgs. Their oldest daughter, princess Sofia, would go on marry prince Juan Carlos of Spain (the later King Juan Carlos)

The current head of the house is Ernst August (b. 1954). Well know as the estranged husband of princess Caroline of Monaco (and father of her second daughter princess Alexandra).
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« Reply #13 on: March 30, 2016, 06:13:32 PM »

The House of Este
is a European princely dynasty. It is one of the most ancient noble dynasties in Europe.

As mentioned above the House of Hanover is the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the House of Este.

The junior branch of the House of Este, were Margraves of d'Este (who became later Duke of Modena and Reggio). The legitimate line ended in 1597 and a member of a cadet branch born out of wedlock,  continued to rule in the imperial duchies and carried on the family name. The last duke, Ercole III, was deposed in 1796 by the French. His two duchies became the Cispadane Republic which one year later was merged into the Cisalpine Republic and then into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy. Ercole was compensated in 1801 with the small principality of Breisgau in southwestern Germany, whose previous rulers, the Habsburgs, ceded it to him in anticipation of its eventual return to the Habsburgs, since Ercole's daughter Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este was married to a cadet Habsburg, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este. Ercole died in 1803 and Breisgau passed to his daughter and her husband, who then (1806) lost it during the Napoleonic reorganization of the western territories of the defunct Holy Roman Empire to the enlarged and elevated Grand Duchy of Baden.

In 1814 when French rule in Italy ended, Modena was returned to Maria Beatrice and her son Archduke Francis of Austria-Este. The family ruled the duchy of Modena and Reggio again from 1814 to 1859 (as Asburgo-Este (Habsburg-Este) and Austria-Este). In 1859 the duchy lost it independence to the new united Italy and the reigning Duke was deposed. The family of Austria-Este became extinct in the male line with the death of Francis V in 1875. His blood-heiress was his niece, Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria-Este. She and her husband, prince Ludwig of Bavaria, later became Queen and King of Bavaria. The present head of this branch of the family is Franz, Duke of Bavaria.

However Francis V had decided to retain the Este name in the Habsburg family and willed his inheritance to the line of Archduke Karl Ludwig, younger brother of Emperor Franz Jozef, on condition that the heir uses the name Austria-Este. The first "adoptee" was Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, who took the name Austria-Este and in 1896 became the heir presumptive of the Habsburg Empire. But as known he and his wife were murdered in 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Since their children were born in a morganatic marriage, the Habsburgs designated his soon to be born great-nephew Robert (second son of future Emperor Karl I) as the next "adopted Austria-Este". Through his mother princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma Robert was a descendant of Ercole III d'Este and the blood of the last Este Dukes thus joined again with the name Austria-Este.

Currently the bearer of this tradition is the eldest son of Archduke Robert and Princess Margaritha of Savoy-Aosta: Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este.
Lorenz is married to Princess Astrid of Belgium, the only daughter of King Albert II. In 1995 Lorenz received the additional title of Prince of Belgium.

Since 1991 the couple's children are titled:
? International format : Princes(ss) of Belgium, Archduke (Archduchess) of Austria-Este, Prince(ss) Imperial of Austria, Prince(ss) Royal of Hungary and Bohemia .
? Belgian format : Princes(ss) of Belgium, Archduke (Archduchess) of Austria-Este (Habsburg-Lorraine)

The eldest of the children and heir is Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este.
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« Reply #14 on: March 30, 2016, 06:31:11 PM »

So that means the Grimaldis are the only royals that are not related to the other European royals then? Thinking

And what about the Liechtenstein royals?
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