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« Reply #30 on: September 12, 2018, 02:00:52 AM »

This topic is amazing. Thank you for the information Principessa.
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« Reply #31 on: September 12, 2018, 08:09:41 AM »

This topic is amazing. Thank you for the information Principessa.

You are welcome.

As mentioned a love and/or like for history, royalty and genealogy.
Most of the royal houses/families are well documented and such. Ok, the illegal (out of wedlock etc.) children are not always stated also if the correct father (or perhaps mother) is listed. Sometimes you have to assume the info is correct Wink Smiley
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« Reply #32 on: September 12, 2018, 08:11:25 AM »

Recently a descendant of the Monaco royal familie Grimaldi put a claim at the French government. A kind of background:

Hilarious these kind of people and claims!  Laugh bounce

A concise family trea of the Grimaldi's:

https://en.wikipedia.org/...ces_of_Monaco_family_tree

Louis Honoré Charles Antoine Grimaldi (12 July 1870 – 9 May 1949) was born in Baden-Baden, Germany, he was the only child of Prince Albert I of Monaco (1848–1922), and Lady Mary Victoria Hamilton (11 December 1850 – 14 May 1922).  The marriage of his parents was annulled in 1880, and Louis was raised in Germany by his mother and stepfather prince Tassilo Festetics von Tolna. By the way princess Ira von Fürstenberg, who was once linked romantically to prince Rainier III is the granddaughter of Louis’s oldest half-sister Maria-Mathilde Festetics von Tolna.

Later in life Louis was posted with the French Foreign Legion, apparently on his own request.  While stationed in Algeria, he met Marie Juliette Louvet (1867–1930), a cabaret singer. Juliette was already the mother of two children, Georges and Marguerite, by her former husband, French "girlie" photographer Achille Delmaet. Their illegitimate daughter, Charlotte Louise Juliette, was born on 30 September 1898 in Constantine, Algeria.

Louis was a long time bachelor, in terms that he did not marry until 1946. His wife Ghislaine Dommanget (13 October 1900 – 30 April 1991) was a French actress, who was previously married to Paul Diey (1863–1931) and André Brulé (1879-1953). She divorced Brulé to marry Louis. This marriage was without issue.

A political crisis loomed for Louis, because without any other heir, the throne of Monaco would pass to his first cousin Wilhelm, the Duke of Urach, a German nobleman who was a son of Prince Louis's aunt, Princess Florestine of Monaco. To ensure this did not happen, in 1911 a law was passed recognizing his illegitimate daughter, Charlotte, as Louis's acknowledged heir, and making her part of the princely family. This law was later held to be invalid under the 1882 statutes. Thus another law was passed in 1918 modifying the statutes to allow the adoption of an heir, with succession rights. Charlotte was formally adopted by Louis in 1919, and became Charlotte Louise Juliette Grimaldi, Princess of Monaco, and Duchess of Valentinois.
Wilhelm, 2nd Duke of Urach, thus placed further back in the line of succession to the throne of Monaco, was chosen as King of Lithuania for a few months in 1918, being known as Mindaugas II. It is thus a moot point whether it would have been possible for him to be the sovereign of two European countries simultaneously, had he in fact succeeded to the throne of Monaco, but he had several sons. In any case he renounced his claim to the principality in 1924, passing it to other French cousins that were also descended from the Grimaldi family, the counts of Chabrillan.

On 17 July 1918, largely because of the von Urach potential claim, France and Monaco had also signed a brief but far-reaching treaty requiring prior French approval of all future Monégasque princes. Article 2. specified: "Measures concerning the international relations of the Principality shall always be the subject of prior consultations between the Government of the Principality and the French Government. The same shall apply to measures concerning directly or indirectly the exercise of a regency or succession to the throne, which shall, whether by marriage or adoption or otherwise, pass only to a person who is of French or Monégasque nationality and is approved by the French Government." Under article 3 Prince Albert agreed "...for himself and his successors the commitment assumed towards the French Government not to alienate the Principality, in whole or in part, in favour of any Power other than France.

A French language link of the (theoretical) line of succesion:
https://fr.wikipedia.org/...e_au_tr%C3%B4ne_de_Monaco

-Through princess Charlotte of Monaco (1898-1977): the current ruling Grimaldi family of Monaco (descendants of prince Rainier III) and the De Massy family (descendants of Rainier’s sisters Antoinette)

-Through princess Florestine of Monaco (1833-1897) (sister of prince Charles III and aunt of Louis II): the Urach line. Which also contains members of the Guinness and Liechtenstein family

-Through princess Honorine of Monaco (1784-1879) (daughter of prince Joseph of Monaco, granddaughter of prince Honoré III of Monaco): this is the line where the De Chabrillan’s descend from. It was to one of his representatives, Aynard de Chabrillan, that the Monaco throne could have come if the law of inheritance had not been modified for the benefit of princess Charlotte of Monaco. The elders of this branch, however, claimed and still claim the succession of the last prince of the 2nd sovereign house of Monaco.

-Through Marie-Thérèse Grimaldi (1650-1723) (daughter (and last child of contemporary descent) of Hercules Grimaldi, Marquis des Baux, himself only son of Honoré II of Monaco). Her father Hercules died at the age of 27 and was replaced as heir apparent by his son Louis, who succeeded Honoré II.

Sources:
Wikipedia
Google

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« Reply #33 on: September 12, 2018, 10:14:15 AM »

Addition to the House of Nassau:

Almost every day I come across a square named after the "grounding father" of the Dutch royal family: Willem van Oranje-Nassau (Willem of Orange-Nassau). The one and only on who the Dutch national anthem is based.

The House of Nassau is named after the lordship associated with Nassau Castle, located in present-day Nassau (Germany). The lords were originally titled “Count of Nassau”, then elevated to the princely class as “gefürstete Grafen” (“Princely counts”). In other words, counts who are granted all legal and aristocratic privileges of a prince.

Early on they divided into 2 main branches:
1.   The elder branch named after count Walram II of Nassau: Walramian (1255 – 1985)

The Walram line received the lordship of Merenberg in 1328 and Saarbrücken in 1353.

After the dead of the 5th count (1344), the main possessions of the Walram line were divided into Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein. The countship of Nassau-Weilburg existed to 1816. The sovereigns of this house afterwards Ruled the Duchy of Nassau until 1866 and from 1890 the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The branch of Nassau-Weilburg ultimately became rulers of Luxembourg.

From a morganatic marriage, contracted in 1868, descends a family named: von Merenberg (of Merenberg), who were entitled as count and countess. This family was declared non-dynastic in 1907. Had they not been excluded from the succession, they would have inherited the headship of the house in 1912.

Philipp I ruled both Nassau-Saarbrücken and Nassau-Weilburg. He also received half of Nassau-Ottweiler in 1393 and other territories later during his reign. After his death in 1429 the territories around Saarbrücken and along the Lahn were kept united until 1442, when they were again divided among his sons into the lines Nassau-Saarbrücken (west of the Rhine) and Nassau-Weilburg (east of the Rhine), the so-called Younger line of Nassau-Weilburg. After the death of count Johann Ludwig I in 1544 the county Nassau-Saarbrücken was split into 3 parts, the 3 lines (Ottweiler, Saarbrücken and Kirchheim) were all extinct in 1574 and all the Nassau-Saarbrücken was united with Nassau-Weilburg until 1629. After the Thirty Years War, in 1651, three counties were established: Nassau-Idstein, Nassau-Weilburg and Nassau-Saarbrücken. Only 8 years later Nassau-Saarbrücken was again divided into: Nassau-Saarbrücken (fell to Nassau-Ottweiler in 1723); Nassau-Ottweiler (fell to Nassau-Usingen in 1728) and Nassau-Usingen. In 1735 Nassau-Usingen was divided again into Nassau-Usingen and Nassau-Saarbrücken. In 1797 Nassau-Usingen finally inherited Nassau-Saarbrücken, it was (re-)unified with Nassau-Weilburg and raised to the Duchy of Nassau in 1806. The first Duke of Nassau was Frederick August of Nassau-Usingen who died in 1816.

The Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein line became extinct in 1728, the properties (and title) fell to Charles, prince of Nassau-Usingen (see above).
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« Reply #34 on: September 12, 2018, 10:14:34 AM »

2.   The younger branch named after Otto: Ottonian (1255 – present)

After the death of the 1st count, Otto in 1303, his sons divided the possessions. Heinrich received Nassau-Siegen; Johan received Nassau-Dillenburg and Emicho received Nassau-Hadamar. After Johan’s death, Nassau Dillenburg fell to Heinrich, who moved to Dillenburg and his descendants are known as the Nassau-Dillenburg line. Also, after Emicho III’s death (grandson of the first Emicho), Nassau-Hadamar fell back to Nassau-Dillenburg. In 1343, Nassau-Beilstein was split off from Nassau-Dillenburg. After count Johan III’s death (1561) Nassau-Beilstein fell back to Nassau-Dillenburg. It was split off again in 1607 for George, who inherited the rest of Nassau-Dillenburg in 1620.

After Johan IV of Nassau-Dillenburg (brother of Willem of Orange-Nassau; Willem the silent) died in 1606, Nassau-Dillenburg was divided among his 5 surviving sons:
-   Wilhelm received Nassau-Dillenburg
-   George received Nassau-Beilstein
-   Johan VII received Nassau-Siegen
-   Ernest Casimir received Nassau-Dietz
-   Johan Louis received Nassau-Hadamar

In 1739, after the death of count Christian, Nassau Dillenburg fell to Nassau-Dietz. As mentioned before Nassau-Beilstein was reunited with Nassau-Dillenburg in 1620. In 1711 Nassau-Hademar was divided between Nassau-Dillenburg; Nassau-Siegen and Nassau-Dietz.

After Johan VII died (1628) the county of Nassau-Siegen was divided in a Catholic part (eldest son Johan VIII) and a Protestant part (son Johan Maurice). In 1734 the Protestant line died out and Nassau-Siegen was reunited under the last ruler of the Catholic line. When he died in 1743, Nassau-Siegen has died out in the male line, and the territory fell to prince Wilhelm IV of the Orange-Nassau-Dietz line, who thereby reunited all the lands of the Ottonian line of the House of Nassau.

The main part of the counts of Nassau-Dietz was the town of Diez. In 1702, the Nassau-Dietz branch followed the House of Orange that had become extinct with Willem III / William III of England. The counts of Nassau-Dietz do not only descend from Willem I, the silent’s, brother, but in female line also from himself. As the 3rd prince of Nassau-Dietz, Wilhelm Friederich, had married Albertine Agnes of Nassau, the 5th daughter of Frederik Hendrik, prince of Orange.  Their grandson Johan Willem Friso (1687-1711) became Stadholder in Friesland and Groningen, and in 1702 became the heir of William III of England and thus the founder of the younger House of Orange-Nassau and of the Dutch Royal Family. However, he had to split the Dutch properties with the King of Prussia who also descended from Willem I. Johan Willem Friso's son, Willem IV, Prince of Orange, inherited a number of Nassau territories besides his paternal Nassau-Dietz, namely Nassau-Hadamar in 1711, Nassau-Siegen in 1734, and Nassau-Dillenburg in 1739. In 1732, Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia left him his Dutch properties, including Huis ten Bosch palace and Het Loo Palace. Willem IV became stadtholder of the Netherlands in 1747 and reunited all of the Dutch and German possessions of his family (except for Nassau-Weilburg) in his hand, styling himself Prince of Orange and Nassau.

In 1808 prince Willem VI of Orange-Nassau lost his remaining German possessions, as a punishment for his opposition to Napoleon. In 1813 after the Battle of Leipzig he regained his territories. In a treaty signed on 31 May 1815 he ceded his German possessions to Prussia, in return for Prussia supporting the creation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, where he ruled as king Willem I (and in exchange of Luxembourg).

The connection with the House of Orange-Nassau was via Engelbert I, son of count Johan I of Nassau-Dillenburg.  He married to an heiress in the Low Countries (surroundings of Breda, which is in the current Dutch province of Noord-Brabant (North-Brabant)). His son Jan V dies in 1516 and subsequently the Dutch properties are inherited by Jan's son Hendrik III of Nassau, while the German properties are inherited by his other son Wilhelm the Rich (father of Willem of Orange). Hendrik III married 3 times and had 1 son from his 2nd marriage to Claudia van Chalon:  René of Chalon, prince of Orange (who had inherited the property of Orange from his maternal uncle Filibert of Chalon, who had died without legitimate issue).  After his death René was succeeded by his cousin Willem, who with that also inherited the title prince of Orange.

Wilhelm the Rich, became Wilhelm I, count of Nassau-Dillenburg. His eldest son Willem the Silent inherited the principality of Orange in Southern France from his cousin René of Chalon, as well as the vast properties of the House of Nassau-Dillenburg in the Netherlands from his father, which Engelbert I of Nassau had received by marriage in 1403. The early House of Orange-Nassau descends from Willem I., the Silent, while the later House of Orange-Nassau (and the Dutch royal family) descends in the male line from his younger brother Johann, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, and from the latter's fifth son, Count Ernst Casimir of Nassau-Dietz, however in the female line also from William of Orange.

At the end of the Holy Roman Empire and the Napoleonic Wars, the Walramian branch had inherited or acquired all the Nassau ancestral lands and proclaimed themselves, with the permission of the Congress of Vienna, the "Dukes of Nassau", forming the independent state of Nassau with its capital at Wiesbaden
According to German tradition, the family name is passed on only in the male line of succession. The House would therefore, from this German perspective, be extinct since 1985. However, both Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchial traditions, constitutional rules and legislation in that matter differ from the German tradition, and thus both countries do not consider the House extinct. The Grand Duke of Luxembourg uses "Duke of Nassau" as his secondary title and a title of pretense to the dignity of Chief of the House of Nassau (being the most senior member of the eldest branch of the House), but not to lay any territorial claims to the former Duchy of Nassau which is now part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
« Last Edit: September 12, 2018, 10:25:28 AM by Principessa » Logged
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« Reply #35 on: September 12, 2018, 10:34:12 AM »

Nassau-Corroy

An illegitimate branch of Nassau-Dillenburg, founded by the illegitimate son of count Heinrich III with his mistress Elisabeth Claire van Rosenbach : Alexis of Nassau-Corroy

Alexis was recognised by emperor Charles V in 1530.In 1540 René of Chalon did gave the full rights of Corroy to his half-brother in 1540. In 1545 the branch was openly recognised by the Prince of Orange.In 1693 Charles II created Joseph-Ignace 1st Count of Corroy. In 1717 the Counts of Corroy added Zweveghem to their possessions and were the last feudal lords in Zwevegem.The familial crest is still the official heraldic crest of Zweveghem.

The male line of de Nassau-Corroy became extinct with the death of Amélie-Constance-Marie de Nassau-Corroy. She had married in 1803 Gillion, the Marquess of Trazegnies d'Ittre, who inherited the castle of Corroy.  This castle, Corroy-le-Château, is still owned by descendants of Amélie, the Marquess's of Trazegnies d'Ittre
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« Reply #36 on: September 12, 2018, 10:39:50 AM »

Von Merenberg

Count of Merenberg (German: Graf von Merenberg) is the title bestowed in 1868 by the reigning Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont, George Victor, upon the morganatic wife and male-line descendants of Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau (1832-1905), who married Natalia Alexandrovna Pushkina (1836-1913), former wife of Russian General Mikhail Leontievich von Dubelt.

Nikolaus was a son of Willhelm, Duke of Nassau and his second wife, Princess Pauline of Württemberg. He was also a younger half-brother of Adolphe, who was deposed by Prussia as last reigning Duke of Nassau in 1866, but succeeded as Grand Duke of Luxembourg in 1890. Natalia was a daughter of Alexander Pushkin, the most renowned Russian writer who ranked, however, only as a dvoryanin; an untitled member of the lower nobility. Therefore, Natalia was created Countess von Merenberg, a title without territory, as she was not legally permitted to share her husband's princely title or rank, even though his family had ceased to be hereditary rulers when the kingdom of Prussia annexed Nassau.

Their surviving children were:
- Countess Sophie von Merenberg (1868-1927). In 1891, she married Grand Duke Michael Mihailovich of Russia (1861-1929). As this marriage was also deemed morganatic, she was not allowed to share her husband's titles and rank. Instead she was created Countess de Torby by the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Her issue survives, among them the current Marquess of Milford Haven.
- Countess Alexandra von Merenberg (1869-1950). She married Máximo de Elía y Ramos Mexía (d. 1929).
- Georg Nikolaus, Count von Merenberg (1871-1948). He had two sons (of whom the elder died young), and one daughter from his first marriage (1895) with Princess Olga Alexandrovna Yurievskaya (1874-1925), a morganatic daughter of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.

Georg Nikolaus' male line became extinct with the death of his son Georg Michael Alexander, Count von Merenberg (1897-1965).

Georg Nikolaus' issue in the female line survives: Georg Nikolaus´granddaughter, Countess Clothilde von Merenberg (born 1941), who married Enno von Rintelin, is the last surviving member of the Merenberg family.

When Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm died in 1905, his nephew Grand Duke Wilhelm IV of Luxembourg (or Guillaume IV) became the last dynastic male of the House of Nassau. If Nikolaus Wilhelm's children had been deemed dynastic, then his son Georg Nikolaus, Count of Merenberg would have succeeded as Head of the House of Nassau upon Wilhelm IV's death. Georg Nikolaus would have thus become the reigning Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

However, his morganatic birth was deemed insurmountable, despite the fact that he had married a daughter of Tsar Alexander II of Russia. In 1907, Wilhelm IV, obtained passage of a law in Luxembourg confirming the exclusion of the Merenbergs from succession to the grand ducal throne. Georg Nikolaus's protests against the Luxembourg Diet's confirmation of the succession rights of William IV's daughter, Princess Marie-Adélaïde, were expected to be taken up by the Netherlands and by the Great Powers which had guaranteed Luxembourg's neutrality in 1867. Nonetheless, Marie-Adélaïde did succeed her father, to become Luxembourg's first female monarch, in 1912. She, in turn, abdicated in favor of her sister Charlotte, whose descendants have reigned over Luxembourg since then.
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« Reply #37 on: September 12, 2018, 11:09:16 AM »

Luxembourg - Nassau

After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. The Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in personal union, the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it similarly to a Dutch province. The Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation.This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned

At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, and by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium.

After the Luxembourg Crisis of 1866 nearly led to war between Prussia and France, the Grand Duchy's independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the 1867 Second Treaty of London, Prussia's troops were withdrawn from the Fortress of Luxembourg, and its Bock and surrounding fortifications were dismantled.

The King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of Willem III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina, while Luxembourg (then restricted to male heirs by the Nassau Family Pact) passed to Adolph of Nassau-Weilburg.



Nassau Family Pact:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassau_Family_Pact


When King Willem I of the Netherlands became the first Grand Duke of Luxembourg, an arrangement for the succession had to be established. The Kingdom of the Netherlands had settled the succession in the Constitution of 1815. Luxembourg was part of the German federation and needed a separate arrangement. The Oranje-Nassaus and Nassaus (Nassau-Weilburg) reverted to the treaty as an arrangement because the head of the Walram line had become Duke of Nassau. Willem I had renounced his rights to Nassau's areas of Ottonen, but Luxembourg had replaced it.

The legal force of the Nassau heritage was confirmed at the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815. All European powers signed this document.

When duke Adolph of Nassau lost his duchy in 1866 and it was annexed by Prussia, it could be interpreted as the end of the 1815 and 1805 federation. When king Willem III of the Netherlands died in 1890, there was no male Oranje-Nassau to succeed him in the by Salic inheritance law governed Luxembourg. Thanks to the efforts of queen Emma (née princess of Waldeck-Pyrmont; 2nd wife and widow of Willem III; niece of Adolph), duke Adolph of Nassau was given the Luxembourg throne in 1890. Adolph was Willem III's 17th cousin once removed through male line. He had, in fact, taken over the regency of Luxembourg for a short time during Willem III's illness. In any case, as he was already 73 years old and knew little of Luxembourgish politics, he left his hands off the day-to-day governing.

Two orders of knights, the Order of the Golden Lion of Nassau and the Order of Merit of Adolph of Nassau recall the inheritance agreements of the Oranges and the Nassaus

The succession in the Netherlands, where Wilhelmina became queen in 1890, and in Luxembourg where Willem IV (Guillaume IV) of Nassau died without male heirs in 1912 and was succeeded by his oldest daughter Marie-Adélaïde, departed from the Salian succession law that had been the basis of the Nassau family pact.

The succession in the Netherlands was regulated in a modern Constitution. The succession in Luxembourg was based on article 42 of the Nassau family of 1783. That provided for female succession when there were no more male heirs at all. Officially the only other legitimate male in the House of Nassau-Weilburg (Luxembourg) was Willem IV's cousin Georg Nikolaus, count of Merenberg, the product of a morganatic marriage. So in 1907, Willem declared the counts of Merenberg non-dynastic. And naming is eldest daughter Marie-Adélaïde as heir presumptive to the Luxembourg grand ducal throne.

In modern constitutions the succession is regulated in the constitution. The Nassau treaties have no legal force in that light.


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« Reply #38 on: September 12, 2018, 11:10:02 AM »

Ooooh let's not forget sources:

- Wikipedia (Dutch, English, German)
- Google
- Own knowledge (picked up at school, by myself and so on)
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« Reply #39 on: September 12, 2018, 11:43:12 AM »

Willem of Orange (aka van Oranje; of Orange-Nassau; the Silent; the Taciturn (= de Zwijger)) and his succession

Willem I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584). He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is also known as Father of the Fatherland (Dutch: Vader des Vaderlands).

He was the eldest son of Wilhelm, Count of Nassau by his second wife Juliana of Stolberg-Werningerode. Willem's father had one surviving daughter by his previous marriage, and his mother had four surviving children by her previous marriage. His parents had twelve children together, of whom Willem was the eldest; he had four younger brothers and seven younger sisters. The family was religiously devout and Willem was raised a Lutheran.

In 1544, Willem's agnatic first cousin, René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, died childless. In his testament, René of Chalon named Willem the heir to all his estates and titles, including that of Prince of Orange, on the condition that he receive a Roman Catholic education. Willem's father acquiesced to this condition on behalf of his 11-year-old son, and this was the founding of the house of Orange-Nassau. Besides the principality of Orange (located today in France) and significant lands in Germany, Willem also inherited vast estates in the Low Countries (present-day Netherlands and Belgium) from his cousin. Because of his young age, Emperor Charles V, who was the overlord of most of these estates, served as regent until Willem was old enough to rule them himself.

Willem was sent to the Netherlands to receive the required Roman Catholic education, first at the family's estate in Breda and later in Brussels, under the supervision of Mary of Hungary, governor of the Habsburg Netherlands (Seventeen Provinces). In Brussels, he was taught foreign languages and received a military and diplomatic education[3] under the direction of Champagney (Jérôme Perrenot), brother of Granvelle.

Being a ward of Charles V and having received his education under the tutelage of the Emperor's sister Mary, Willem came under the particular attention of the imperial family, and became a favorite. After a rapid military and political career, in 1559, Phillip II appointed Willem stadtholder (governor) of the provinces of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht, thereby greatly increasing his political power.[6] A stadtholdership over Franche-Comté followed in 1561. Although he never directly opposed the Spanish king, Willem soon became one of the most prominent members of the opposition in the Council of State. Resulting in among others an army to get the Spaniards out of the low countries.

In 1573, Willem joined the Calvinist Church. The Burgundian Catholic Balthasar Gérard (born 1557) was a subject and supporter of Philip II, and regarded Willem of Orange as a traitor to the king and to the Catholic religion. On 10 July 1584 Gérard shot Willem in his home in Delft.

Philip Willem, Willem's eldest son by his first marriage, to Anna of Egmond, succeeded him as the Prince of Orange. However, as Philip Willem was a hostage in Spain and had been for most of his life, his brother Maurice of Nassau was appointed Stadholder and Captain-General at the suggestion of Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, and as a counterpoise to the Earl of Leicester. Phillip Willem died in Brussels on 20 February 1618 and was succeeded by his half-brother Maurice, the eldest son by Willem's second marriage, to Anna of Saxony, who became Prince of Orange. As Maurice left no legitimate issue upon his dead he was succeeded by his half-brother Frederik Hendrik (Willem’s youngest son from his 4th marriage to Louise de Coligny).

The son of Frederik Hendrik, Willem II of Orange succeeded his father as stadtholder, as did his son, Willem III of Orange. The latter also became king of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1689. Although he was married to Mary II, Queen of Scotland and England for 17 years, he died childless in 1702. He appointed his cousin Johan Willem Friso (Willem's great-great-great-grandson) as his successor. Because Albertine Agnes, a daughter of Frederik Hendrik, married Willem Frederik of Nassau-Dietz, the present royal house of the Netherlands is descended from Willem the Silent through the female line. Also Johan Willem Friso was the senior agnatic descendant of Willem the Silent’s brother. Johan Willem Friso and his wife are the most recent common ancestors to all currently reigning European monarchs. This is a distinction he has held since 1938, when Franz Joseph II -a descendant of John William Friso, succeeded Franz I - who was not a descendant, as Prince of Liechtenstein.

Many of the Dutch national symbols can be traced back to Willem of Orange:
-   He is the ancestor of the Dutch monarchy
-   The flag of the Netherlands (red, white and blue) is derived from the flag of the prince, which was orange, white and blue
-   The coat of arms of the Netherlands is based on that of Willem of Orange. Its motto Je maintiendrai (French, "I will maintain") was also used by Willem of Orange, who based it on the motto of his cousin René of Châlon, who used Je maintiendrai Châlon.
-   The national anthem of the Netherlands, the Wilhelmus, was originally a propaganda song for Willem. It was probably written by Philips of Marnix, Lord of Saint-Aldegonde, a supporter of Willem of Orange. The first letter of every couplet forms the name: Willem van Nassov (Willem of Nassau).
-   The national colour of the Netherlands is orange, and it is used, among other things, in the clothing of Dutch athletes.
-   The orange sash of the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle was in honour of the Dutch Dynasty of Willem the Silent, since the order's founder, Frederick I of Prussia's mother, Louise Henrietta of Nassau, was the granddaughter of Willem the Silent.
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« Reply #40 on: September 12, 2018, 12:17:18 PM »

Of Orange:

In 1544, Willem I "the Silent", count of Nassau, with large properties in the Netherlands, inherited the title Prince of Orange. Willem, 11 years old at the time, was the paternal cousin of René of Châlon who died without an heir when he was shot at St. Dizier in 1544 during the Franco-Imperial wars. René, it turned out, willed his entire fortune to this very young relative. Among those titles and estates was the Principality of Orange. René’s mother, Claudia, had held the title prior to it being passed to young Willem since Philibert de Châlon was her brother. When Willem inherited the Principality, it was incorporated into the holdings of what became the House of Orange.

As an independent enclave within France, Orange became an attractive destination for Protestants and a Huguenot stronghold. Willem III of Orange, who ruled England as William III of England, was the last Prince of Orange to rule the principality. The principality was captured by the forces of Louis XIV under François Adhémar de Monteil Comte de Grignan, in 1672 during the Franco-Dutch War, and again in August 1682, but Willem did not concede his claim to rule. In 1702, Willem III died childless and the right to the principality became a matter of dispute between Friedrich I of Prussia and Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz, who both claimed the title 'Prince of Orange'. In 1702 also, Louis XIV of France enfeoffed François Louis, Prince of Conti, a relative of the Châlon dynasty, with the Principality of Orange, so that there were three claimants to the title.

Finally in 1713 in the Treaty of Utrecht, Friedrich I of Prussia ceded the Principality to France (without surrendering the princely title) in which cession the Holy Roman Empire as suzerain concurred, though Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz, the other claimant to the principality, did not concur. Only in 1732, with the Treaty of Partage, did Johan Willem Friso's successor Willem IV, Prince of Orange, renounce all his claims to the territory, but again (like Friedrich I) he did not renounce his claim to the title. In the same treaty an agreement was made between both claimants, stipulating that both houses be allowed to use the title.

In 1814 after the defeat of Napoleon, the United Provinces was not revived but replaced into the Kingdom of the United Netherlands, under a King of the House of Orange-Nassau. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna took care of a French sensitivity by stipulating that the Kingdom of the Netherlands would be ruled by the House of Oranje-Nassau – "Oranje", not "Orange" as had been the custom until then. The English language, however, continues to use the term Orange-Nassau.

The current users of the title are Crown princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau), Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Hohenzollern), and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Nesle (Mailly).

> In the Netherlands the title prins(es) van Oranje is used for the heir to the throne (the crown prince / crown princess). As mentioned before the royal family name is also styled as of Oranje-Nassau.

> Friedrich I of Prussia (1702–1713), a senior descendant in female line from Willem the Silent, who ceded his claims to the lands of Orange to France in 1713, and his descendants, but kept his right to use the title in its German form: currently Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, "Prinz von Oranien" (1976–)

> Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, appointed by the French king, and his descendants, descended through another line of the house of Chalons-Arlay, currently Guy, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, Prince d'Orange.

( > Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti, appointed by the French king, and his descendants, the Princes of Conti becoming extinct in 1815.)
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« Reply #41 on: September 12, 2018, 11:30:42 PM »

Principessa: you are a fountain of wisdom and information. Thank you very much for collecting and sharing all those details.
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« Reply #42 on: September 13, 2018, 04:15:45 AM »

Principessa: you are a fountain of wisdom and information. Thank you very much for collecting and sharing all those details.

I agree!  Star
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« Reply #43 on: September 13, 2018, 04:46:17 PM »

Thank you al!  Blush Blush
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