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Author Topic: Wilhelmina (1880-1962)  (Read 27328 times)
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CyrilSebastian

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« Reply #60 on: August 13, 2020, 01:46:03 AM »

Wilhelmina's father formally announced her the successor to the throne in 1887. Her brother Prince Alexander had died in 1884.

There is even a theory that Alexander hadn't died, but was locked away, as a.o. father thought he wasn't suitable to be king.
   
Where was Prince Alexander locked away?
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« Reply #61 on: August 13, 2020, 12:05:48 PM »

Wilhelmina's father formally announced her the successor to the throne in 1887. Her brother Prince Alexander had died in 1884.

There is even a theory that Alexander hadn't died, but was locked away, as a.o. father thought he wasn't suitable to be king.
   
Where was Prince Alexander locked away?

English wiki about Alexander: https://en.wikipedia.org/...exander,_Prince_of_Orange. When reading the information among others on the Dutch wiki, I can only think that he was a bit of a tragic person. Since a young age he was sickly and nervous. For his mother, that was a reason to surround her dear Alex with the pet name Loulou, as she called him, with great care and love. This extra attention and care made him a mother's child, his father was annoyed by this.I think that his father was rather hars for Alexander (if it was the time spirit or just Willem IIIs charachter, I don't know) Also his parents had lost a son just before Alexander was born. His parents marriage was bad and there were a lot tensions. Unlike his eldest brother, Prince Alexander was disciplined, intellectual and read a lot.Alexander studied (Dutch) law at University in Leiden.In a short period of time he looses his beloved mother and his elder brother Willem. Alexander becomes more and more lonely. After the death of his brother Willem, Alexander feels even more lonely than he already was, after the death of his mother. He starts to think about marriage, he wants someone who understands him completely, with whom he can discuss his troubles and sorrows and where he can pour out his heart. Despite some plans and inquiries about suitable suitors, none of this will materialize.Prince Alexander eventually died unmarried and childless at the age of 32 on June 21, 1884 from typhoid fever. Because his father, who made a holiday trip to Germany and Switzerland with Queen Emma, ​​his second wife, and their daughter Wilhelmina, did not intend to interrupt his stay there, the funeral was constantly postponed. The king did not return until July 15, 1884. Prince Alexander was interred on 17 July 1884 in the burial vault of the House of Orange in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft. His half-sister Wilhelmina was the heir to the throne from his death.
 
Others about Prince Alexander
> His mother, December 1876: "My second son is an excellent person, but he has no charm for women, nor does he feel anything for them."
>Minister Weitzel, 20 May 1883, in his diary after a dinner with the prince: 'I found the prince quite different from what I had imagined. ... He is a highly educated and highly entertaining man who speaks with knowledge and judgment about many matters and who listens with modesty or shrewdness to inquiries when topics come up that he is not sufficiently adept at. One can reason with him, he tolerates contradiction even if it is persisted to the utmost; he seems to be persuasive, although his actions do not always show it. He seems to lack the strength of mind to force himself; towards others, not least towards the King, he is persistent enough. "
> Once again an observation by the then Minister of War, A. Weitzel: "In his statements he honors the principles of a very liberal constitutional monarch. He makes it very clear that he thinks he will apply those principles with scrupulousness, but has a policy of he no understanding. "

When Alexander lived on his own with his court, in the house on the Kneuterdijk in The Hague, Alexander had a broad interest in books and old writings, such as those of Voltaire and other intellectuals, from which he collected original manuscripts and other important pieces from the time. of the Duke Alva and the struggle for independence in the Southern Netherlands in the 1830s. He also started collecting butterflies and miniatures, making his house a kind of cabinet of curiosities. The underlying thought was that he tried to seek distraction - and after the death of his mother and brother Prince Willem - in these worldly matters. Painting also pleased him and he built up a collection of paintings and encouraged young artists and even paid for their education in some cases. Visual arts institutions can always count on Alexander's support.

However, he has not completely isolated himself from the outside world, but keeps himself informed through newspapers and other sources about what is happening around him.

During the last years of his life he bought a number of things that had been the property of his late mother and brother. These had been offered for sale by King Willem III, one of these things was the former home of his brother Willem, Paleis Kneuterdijk. He knows how to buy back this house from the municipality of The Hague, because he believes that this house should remain in the family. He also managed to buy back a precious pearl necklace from his deceased mother from a jeweler to which King William III had sold it.

In his later life the bond between Alexander and his father deteriorated. The remarriage of his father and the mutual misunderstanding, due to extremes in characters, made him lead a secluded life in the years before his death.

Since Alexander did not have a will, after his death, his possessions were sold through a public auction. His father was not interested in any of this. He does refrain from selling jewelry that had been owned by his first wife Sophie, so as not to hurt the feelings of many. The estate includes a pile of letters and documents, some of which come from Queen Sophie. For reasons of privacy, these are entrusted to Alexander's personal secretary, Willem Johannes Dominicus van Dijck, who, at the request of Queen Emma, ​​would keep them in his family until 1924, 40 years after the death of the Crown Prince. These documents were later returned in a solid box by the grandson of the personal secretary Van Dijck, then reigning Prince Queen Wilhelmina.

The complot theory does not define the exact location, but it was thought Alexander was put in an Asylum.


In the '90s there is been a Dutch tv show that has a play with this complot theory. It was called "Wij Alexander" (We Alexander) and goes about a new doctor in an asylum who meets a patient who claims to be Prince Alexander.....
Here you can see some parts of this Dutch series: https://tvblik.nl/wij-alexander/16-juni-2020

The very short English wiki about the series: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wij,_Alexander

Translation of the story line of the series:

"...The main character in the series is Prince Alexander. He lived from 1851 to 1884 and was the third son of King Willem III and his first wife Princess Sophie of Württemberg. Alexanders oldest brother, Willem, was always gone and attended all kinds of boarding schools. His brother Maurits had already died in 1850 at the age of seven, before Alexander's birth. Alexander soon became his mother's favorite. He was very sick from childhood and according to some he would have had a weak character.

The series begins in 1909, one day after the birth of Princess Juliana. The Netherlands is celebrating because the monarchy has been secured with Juliana's birth. Psychiatry student Jan Giltay (played by Hugo Haenen) starts working in a clinic around the same time. There he becomes intrigued by patient no. 4 (played by Jacques Commandeur). He claims to be Prince Alexander, who already died in 1884. Doubt arises because the patient knows a lot about life at court. This life is shown in flashbacks and is based in part on facts. These flashbacks form a second storyline in the series. In it we see, among other things, the bad marriage of King Willem III and Sophie and the struggle for the children.

Jan Giltay is very passionate about treating patient no. 4. Then he receives information that indicates that the patient may really be Crown Prince Alexander. Giltay is ordered to treat the "prince" and to gather information about a secret box belonging to the crown prince, in which the prince allegedly collected incriminating evidence against his father. From this information it would appear that Queen Wilhelmina cannot be a daughter of William III.

The story develops into a thriller-like plot, in which blackmail and murder lead to the psychiatrist and his patient fleeing to Paris. The answer to the key question in Wij Alexander, who is patient No. 4 really, is slowly revealed as the story progresses. In addition, various parties are looking for the box...."
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« Reply #62 on: August 13, 2020, 10:54:28 PM »

Is that a Anna Anderson type of rumour? Or is there more to it?
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« Reply #63 on: August 13, 2020, 10:59:32 PM »

Is that a Anna Anderson type of rumour? Or is there more to it?

More an Anna Anderson type of rumour. Probably fueled by the bad understanding between father and son and the box given to Wilhelmina 40 years after Alexanders death
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« Reply #64 on: November 04, 2020, 12:37:19 AM »

Queen Wilhelmina made a painting on the roof of the Palace at the Dam in Amsterdam.
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CyrilSebastian

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« Reply #65 on: December 22, 2020, 11:44:31 PM »

Before Queen's Day the Dutch celebrated 'Princess Day' on August 31st. The first celebration was in 1885, on the fifth anniversary of the young Princess Wilhelmina, heiress to the Dutch throne.
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« Reply #66 on: January 22, 2021, 02:35:13 PM »

Andere tijden is originally a Dutch tv show about various historical topics (Literally translated Andere tijden = Other times). In 2020 there were also several items put online, for example about the exile of the German Emperor Wilhelm II in the Netherlands and in specific which (unknown) rol played by Queen Wilhelmina. According to the official lecture she was rather suprised by Wilhelms arrival. But according to a Dutch historian there was more to the story:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lxo7FK95G20
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« Reply #67 on: April 21, 2021, 12:10:54 AM »

After Germany invaded The Netherlands on May 10, 1940, Queen Wilhelmina left for England with her family and members of the Cabinet.   
Who were the Cabinet members?
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« Reply #68 on: April 21, 2021, 10:41:33 AM »

After Germany invaded The Netherlands on May 10, 1940, Queen Wilhelmina left for England with her family and members of the Cabinet.    
Who were the Cabinet members?

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Londens_kabinet

Roughly translated to English as:

London cabinet

The London cabinet refers to the four cabinets that, together with Queen Wilhelmina, formed the Dutch government in exile during World War II, which was headquartered in London.

preface
In August 1939, the fifth Colijn cabinet was succeeded by the De Geer II cabinet, which included Social Democrats for the first time. Shortly after the cabinet took office, the Dutch army was mobilized. A few weeks later, the Second World War broke out. The Netherlands remained neutral until the German invasion the following year.

Transfer of authority and departure
>  See also Royal Family and Government evacuation
On May 10, 1940 at 9 a.m., a few hours after the German invasion of the Netherlands, Minister of Foreign Affairs Van Kleffens and Minister of Colonies Welter departed from Scheveningen beach by seaplane of the Naval Aviation Service for London.

On May 13, 1940, Queen Wilhelmina left Hook of Holland with the British destroyer HMS Hereward. She arrived in England later that day.

On May 13, 1940, the remaining ministers from the second De Geer cabinet also left for Hoek van Holland to go from there with an English destroyer to London, except for Minister of Trade, Industry and Shipping Max Steenberghe and Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries Arie Adriaan van Rhijn, who initially decided to stay.

The same day, Minister Steenberghe, on behalf of the queen and the cabinet, transferred governmental authority in the Netherlands to Henri Winkelman and requested the secretaries-general (SGs) to behave in accordance with Winkelman's instructions. At the request of the other ministers, Steenberghe and Van Rhijn went to Hook of Holland after all to go with them to London. Secretary-General Johannes Regnerus Maria van Angeren of Justice feared the Germans because as SG he was in favor of tough action against the National Socialists and therefore went along. Jan Coenraad Tenkink became acting SG. Later, in 1942, Van Angeren became Minister of Justice in London.

Government
So the government settled in London. Because there was no parliamentary control in London, the queen was able to leave an important mark on the cabinet. Due to De Geer's uncomplicated attitude, she brought about his replacement by Gerbrandy in September 1940. Afterwards, various ministers also had to leave the field, in which Wilhelmina often played an important role.

For the cabinets, the fight against Germany (and later also Japan) was the most important task. In addition, policy focused on preparing for the recovery of the Netherlands after the liberation.

From 1940 to 1945, two versions of the Official Gazette of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Government Gazette were published, one from the London cabinet and one from the occupied Netherlands. The London and post-war government journals from 1940 to 1950 also had a letter per year, A for the remainder of 1940, to K for 1950. This also distinguishes them from the official journals of Commander-in-Chief Henri Winkelman, indicated by the letter O, and those issued under Seyss-Inquart, indicated by the letter S.

Since there was no parliament, there were no formal laws, only royal decrees. On the basis of subjective state imperative law (that is, not regulated in the Constitution), these could have the force of law, thus regulating matters that in normal times can only be regulated by law. Such decisions were called legal acts. After the war, the Supreme Court decided that these were valid.

Legislative Decree A1 stipulated that the Dutch state would temporarily become the owner of foreign assets and assets of persons and companies established in the occupied Netherlands, so that they could not be forced to transfer funds, sales proceeds, etc. to an intermediary in a neutral country who would divert it to the occupier. The neutral European states, especially Switzerland, generally did not adhere to this. The United States (US), on the other hand, had already frozen assets in the US from occupied territories by means of Executive Order 8389.

The Occupation Measures Decree (Stb. E 93) of 17 September 1944 contained a list A of regulations that were deemed never to have existed (they expired retroactively, they were null and void), a list B of regulations that expired upon liberation, and a list C of schemes that have been provisionally maintained. See also the enforced laws of the German occupier. The Decree on the Restoration of Legal Traffic (Stb. E 100) operationalized the retroactive effect of the regulations on list A. List A included various anti-Jewish regulations, such as the two Liro regulations. Regulations of lower bodies such as provinces and municipalities have been maintained for the time being, just like those on list C.

Cabinet-De Geer II (August 1939 - September 1940)
This was a center-left emergency cabinet, which included two members of the Social Democratic Workers' Party for the first time. The cabinet also consisted of ministers from RKSP, CHU, VDB, an ARP member (without party ties) and two non-party members. Shortly after taking office, the cabinet was confronted with the threat of war and decided to mobilize.

Cabinet-Gerbrandy I and II (September 1940 - February 1945)
These cabinets are also known as the 'London cabinets' because they were in London throughout the period. As Prime Minister Gerbrandy was a tireless fighter for the Dutch cause. Like Queen Wilhelmina, he inspired the Dutch resistance through radio speeches. Various ministerial changes took place, in which the relationship between ministers and the queen also played an important role.

Gerbrandy III cabinet (February-June 1945)
This cabinet took office after the resignation of the Social Democratic ministers from the second Gerbrandy cabinet. It was largely formed by people from the liberated southern part of the Netherlands. Louis Beel, Jan de Quay and Franciscus Cornelis Marie Wijffels were among the new ministers. After the liberation, the cabinet resigned to pave the way for a new cabinet.


German attack on the Netherlands in 1940:
https://nl.wikipedia.org/...nval_op_Nederland_in_1940

Evacuation

On May 12, 1940, the princely family (Juliana, Bernhard, Beatrix, Irene) left in the evening at 11 p.m. with the destroyer HMS Codrington from IJmuiden to England. The less than a year old Princess Irene was transported in a coffin, resistant to poison gas attacks. The next day, on May 13, Queen Wilhelmina left for Hoek van Holland, accompanied by several armored cars, where a final meeting with the ministers took place in Fort aan den Hoek van Holland. The British destroyer HMS Hereward brought her to England. The ministers (but without their families) also left for the United Kingdom on that day (see also London cabinet). At about 3 p.m. government authority was transferred to General Winkelman.

Prince Bernhard returned to Zeeland after his arrival in England. He traveled to England again via Paris. The purpose of his visit to Paris has never been clarified.

To secure the monarchy, Juliana and the princesses Beatrix and Irene later moved to Ottawa, Canada. Only five years later, on August 2, 1945, would the family, with Princess Margriet, born in Canada in 1943, on temporary international territory, set foot on Dutch soil again.

The Dutch population reacted shocked to the evacuation of the royal family and the cabinet. The newspapers had hardly published any negative news until then. In almost all newspaper articles, the Dutch defense was still highly rated on 12 May.



https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabinet-De_Geer_II


Cabinet-De Geer II

The cabinet-De Geer II (also known as London I) was the Dutch cabinet from August 10, 1939 to September 3, 1940. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Roman Catholic State Party (RKSP), Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP), Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP, Christelijk-Historisch Unie (CHU) and the Vrijzinnig Democratic Bond (VDB) after the resignation of the Cabinet-Colijn V on July 27, 1939. On May 14, 1940, left shortly after the German invasion during the Second World War the cabinet to London where Queen Wilhelmina was already located and was formed the first of the four London cabinets that led the Dutch government in exile during the Second World War.

Gradient
The last council of ministers in the Netherlands was held on May 13, 1940 in Fort aan den Hoek van Holland before emigrating to England. Queen Wilhelmina had already left by then.



See the wikipedia link for an overview of the cabinet members / ministers of De Geer II (London I).
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CyrilSebastian

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« Reply #69 on: June 08, 2021, 01:36:27 AM »

Queen Wilhelmina attended the inauguration of an exhibition of roses in 1950 in Amsterdam.   
http://www.gettyimages.com/license/537570403
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« Reply #70 on: July 18, 2021, 01:18:50 AM »

At age twenty, Queen Wilhelmina ordered a Dutch warship to evacuate Paul Kruger from South Africa's embattled Transvaal.
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CyrilSebastian

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« Reply #71 on: September 30, 2021, 01:54:02 AM »

Queen Wilhelmina descending from a carriage   
http://www.gettyimages.com/license/944194174
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