Willem (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584), Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, better known as William of Orange or by his nickname Willem the Silent and often called Father of the Fatherland in the Netherlands, was initially stadtholder (deputy) for the reigning lord of the Netherlands. He began his career in the service of the Roman-German Emperor Charles V. Disagreements with Charles's successor Philip eventually led to the Eighty Years' War. Willem of Orange has been married 4 times and had 15 children with his wifes in total, besides some illegitimate offspring.
Filip Willem (December 19, 1554 - February 20, 1618), Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau, Count of Buren, was the eldest son of William of Orange and his first wife Anna van Egmont.Anna died three years after the birth of Filips Willem. Filip Willem is partly named after Philip, the son of Charles V, who would later succeed his father as lord of Holland and king of Spain.When his father Willem the Silent ignored Alva's summons to return to Brussels, remaining in Germany, Filip Willem, only a boy of 13, was studying at the University at Leuven in Brabant. He was seized in February 1568, and taken to Spain partly as a hostage, but especially to be raised as a good Catholic and loyal subject. He would never see his father again (his mother had already died ten years earlier). In 1606 in Fontainebleau, Filip Willem was married to Eleonora of Bourbon-Condé, daughter of Henry I, Prince de Condé, and cousin of King Henry IV of France, but he died in 1618 without any children.
Willem II of Orange (May 27, 1626 - November 6, 1650), Prince of Orange and Count of Nassau-Orange, was stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Overijssel, Gelre and Zutphen, Groningen and Drenthe between 1647 and 1650. He was the son of stadtholder and prince Frederik Hendrik of Orange and his grandniece Amalia van Solms. He married nine-year-old Maria Henriëtte Stuart, the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, at the age of 14. In October 1650, after a hunt on the Veluwe, the prince developed a fever. He was found to be suffering from smallpox and died on November 6 at the age of 24. Eight days later, his heir was born, the later stadtholder Willem III.
Willem Hendrik van Oranje (November 14, 1650 - March 19, 1702) was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau since his birth.Willem III of Orange was born eight days after the sudden passing of his father, Stadtholder Willem II, who died of smallpox. His mother was Maria Henriëtte Stuart, the English Princess Royal. He married in 1677, his first cousin Mary, elder surviving daughter of the Duke of York, later King James II of England (James VII of Scotland). Mary was eleven years his junior and he anticipated resistance to a Stuart match from the Amsterdam merchants who had disliked his mother (another Mary Stuart), but Willem believed that marrying Mary would increase his chances of succeeding to Charles's kingdoms, and would draw England's monarch away from his pro-French policies. Mary became pregnant soon after the marriage, but miscarried. After a further illness later in 1678, she never conceived again. During the Glorious revolution Willem III invaded the UK and eventually ruled as King William III and Queen Mary II.
Willem Karel Hendrik Friso ; Willem IV (1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751), was Prince of Orange and Prince of Orange-Nassau. He was the first hereditary stadtholder of the Republic of the United Provinces. He was distinguished, peaceful and affable in his conduct, but had to contend with poor health and a deformity of his back that would increasingly hinder his political-administrative conduct. Willem Karel Hendrik Friso was born in Leeuwarden as the son of Johan Willem Friso van Nassau-Dietz, who had died shortly before, and Maria Louise van Hessen-Kassel. The fall of a horse, in 1717 in the garden of Paleis Soestdijk, the summer residence, caused fear for his life. He was left with a deformed spine, complications of which would later lead to his death. Already in 1721 there was talk of a marriage with the English princess Anna of Hanover. The English ambassador William Cadogan, the first Earl Cadogan, who was married to Margaret Cecilia Munter, may have played an important role. The negotiations for the marriage of Princess Anna with the Dutch monarch would last twelve years. The cause lay largely in the international political sphere. After the death of King-Stadtholder William/Willem III, during the Second Stadtholderless Era, Prussian and also English diplomats and lawyers were busy claiming for their monarch the desirable title of 'Prince of Orange', with all the associated emoluments. and possessions.When Stadtholder William III's estate was settled in a secret treaty known as the Traité de partage, and both Willem Karel Hendrik Friso and King Frederick William I of Prussia were recognized as Prince of Orange, but the former obtained the most possessions – Willem renounced Lingen and van Meurs – and the second reportedly most indebted, William's value in the marriage market rose considerably. In 1732, Huis ten Bosch Palace, which was part of the inheritance issue, came into the possession of Prince Willem IV, after which he had it restored between 1734 and 1737 and expanded with two large side wings, after a design by Daniël Marot. He now owned a palace in The Hague that lived up to the stature of a monarch. Important given his dynastic ambitions. In 1733 Willem IV finally married Anna. They would have 4 children, among others 2 stillborn.
Willem V, calling himself Willem Batavus (8 March 1748 - 9 April 1806), Prince of Orange, Prince of Orange-Nassau, was the last heirloom stadtholder of the Republic of the United Netherlands (1751-1795). Willem was born in The Hague as the son of hereditary stadtholder Willem IV and Anna van Hannover. Willem was three years old when his father died. He was raised by his mother and Douwe Sirtema van Grovestins and from 1759 by his guardian Duke Lodewijk Ernst of Brunswijk-Wolfenbüttel. The prince was limping and probably missing two front teeth after falling from his horse in his youth. The result was a pout. In 1754, a disagreement arose about the year in which he would be declared of age. In 1763 he became seriously ill, people feared for his position as successor. It was a matter of finding a suitable suitor. The prince had his eye on his cousin Caroline Mathilde of Wales, but she was married off to a Danish prince. Frederick V of Denmark recommended to his daughters, and Frederick the Great brought attention to some of his nieces. On October 4, 1767, the prince married Wilhelmina of Prussia (1751-1820), a niece of Frederick the Great, in Berlin. The couple would have 5 children. After struggles, the Stadtholder and his family went into exile in 1795.
Willem Frederik Prins van Oranje-Nassau (August 24, 1772 – December 12, 1843) was the first king of the Netherlands from the House of Orange-Nassau. Willem Frederik was born as the third son of Stadtholder Willem V of Orange-Nassau and Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, a niece of King Frederick II of Prussia. After the death of Stadholder Willem V, he was known as Willem VI until 1815. Willem Frederik married his first cousin Wilhelmina van Prussia, a sister of Frederik Wilhelm III, King of Prussia, in 1791. Five children were born from this marriage, including the future King Willem II of the Netherlands. On November 30, 1813, Willem set foot on Dutch soil again after eighteen years. In London he was invited by letter to take over the government as "sovereign monarch". In 1815 Napoleon returned briefly and Willem was promised at the Congress of Vienna the former Austrian Netherlands (which he had already tacitly occupied). England and Prussia hoped that the Netherlands would form a strong buffer state on France's northern border. On March 16, 1815, sovereign Prince Willem I himself assumed the title of King of the Netherlands. As compensation for the Nassau hereditary lands taken from him as private property, he also received Luxembourg and thus became Grand Duke of Luxembourg. In 1830, the Belgian Revolution broke out in Brussels, which resulted in an independent kingdom of Belgium under strong military support from France. Willem sent an army to Belgium in 1831 to recapture Brussels. It was commanded by Crown Prince Willem and, among others, by the king's second son, Frederik and Charles Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Despite initial successes, this Ten Day Campaign was a fiasco, because the French king sent troops to help the now sworn in King Leopold. The Belgian king, who spoke German, Russian, English and French, but no Dutch that he took to be a German dialect, had a great alliance diplomatically.Willem was obliged under great diplomatic pressure to accept the independence of the Kingdom of Belgium. Although Willem lost the support of the great powers, he stubbornly resisted peace. The merchant king practically bankrupted the state with his persistence policy, and his reputation as a reliable financial genius was dented. In 1839 he finally recognized the fledgling Belgian state. In 1840 Willem I intended to remarry the Catholic Belgian Countess Henriëtte d'Oultremont de Wégimont, a former lady-in-waiting of Willem's first wife Wilhelmina. This marriage sparked much public outcry and this was the ultimate reason for his abdication.
Willem Frederik George Lodewijk (December 6, 1792 - March 17, 1849), Prince of Orange-Nassau, was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Duke of Limburg from October 7, 1840 until his death in 1849. Willem (nickname Guillot) was born in 1792 in The Hague. His parents were the future King William I of the Netherlands and Wilhelmina of Prussia. His grandfathers were the reigning stadtholder Willem V and the Prussian king Frederik Wilhelm II of Prussia. After the proclamation of the Batavian Republic in January 1795, the entire stadtholder's family, including the then two-year-old Willem, fled to England. From 1797 Willem resided with his parents at the court of the King of Prussia in Berlin. From December 1813 to May 1814, Willem was betrothed to the British Crown Princess Charlotte Augusta, daughter of the future King George IV. She broke off their engagement and eventually married Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, later King Leopold I of Belgium. Willem II married Anna Pavlovna, a daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia, on 21 February 1816. Five children were born of the marriage.
Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk (February 19, 1817 –November 23, 1890), Prince of Orange-Nassau, was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from March 17, 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also Duke of Limburg of 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866. Willem was the son of King Willem II and Queen Anna Pavlovna. After the abdication of William I in 1840, he became the Prince of Orange. After the death of his father, he succeeded him as king of the Netherlands. Willem married his first cousin Princess Sophie van Wurtemberg in 1839. They had three sons, all of whom died before their father: Willem, Maurits and Alexander. After the death of his wife, he remarried in 1879 to Princess Emma zu Waldeck und Pyrmont. They had one daughter, Wilhelmina, who succeeded him.
Willem Nicolaas Alexander Frederik Karel Hendrik (September 4, 1840 – June 11, 1879), Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, was from 17 March 1849 crown prince of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and heir apparent of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Prince Willem was the eldest child of King Willem III's marriage to Queen Sophie. His nickname was Wiwill.Prince Willem and his father King Willem III had a far from good relationship, culminating in Willem's self-imposed exile after the King and Queen disapproved of his marriage plans with the Dutch Countess Mathilde of Limburg Stirum. Such a marriage was unsuitable from the point of view of the class consciousness at the time. The council of ministers was initially also against it, but eventually accepted it, because it was feared that otherwise he would not marry at all and there would then be no heir to the throne. His only surviving brother Alexander was not to be married either. Willem III preferred that his eldest son marry a foreign princess, but indicated that he might still agree to a marriage with a foreign countess or duchess. He wanted to prevent the throne from passing to the children of his sister Sophie. A marriage with a Dutch lady remained out of the question for him, however. Willem then left for Paris for good. The Parisian tabloid press regularly devoted scandalous stories to his debauched dealings. According to the biographer and historian Dik van der Meulen, he may have owed his nickname Prince Citron there to his moodiness, with a reference to his principality of Orange, which stands for 'orange'. Since he was associated with the family of the ex-Emperor Napoleon III, he was shadowed by French government agents. In the end Prince Willem got into financial difficulties. He had borrowed millions of francs, which he spent partly on swindlers, but also on prostitutes. On May 25, 1879, Willem had a "serious period". Pneumonia was the cause of this. He was treated with quinine, but died on June 11, aged just 38. Yet he had never completely lost his stature in Paris either; by his bier lay a wreath of ex-Empress Eugénie of France and one of the English Crown Prince Edward. He was interred in the crypt of Oranje-Nassau in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft on June 26, 1879. His brother Alexander succeeded him as Prince of Orange, but was also survived by his father after his death in 1884. Therefore, after his death in 1890, Willem III was succeeded by his daughter Wilhelmina, born in 1880, as Queen of the Netherlands.
Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg (27 April 1967) has been King of the Netherlands since 30 April 2013. He is the eldest child from the marriage of Beatrix, Princess of the Netherlands, and Claus, Prince of the Netherlands, Jonkheer van Amsberg. His call sign is Alex/Alexander. On February 2, 2002 he married Argentinian Máxima Zorreguieta. The couple has 3 daughters.