I'm guessing several countries have "choked" in Afghanistan.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began in the 18th century with the Hotaki dynasty and Durranid dynasty. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in 'The Great Game' between the British and Russian colonial empires. After the Anglo-Afghan War of 1919, Amanoellah Khan and Mohammed Zahir Shah undertook the modernization of the country. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a Russian invasion, which was opposed by the Americans. After the Russian withdrawal, a series of civil wars followed in the 1980s that devastated much of the country. Ultimately, this paved the way for the Taliban, a group of religious extremists, who briefly conquered almost the entire country.
In 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan in search of Osama bin Laden. The immediate cause was the September 11 attacks. The US attacks supported the advance of the Northern Alliance, an alliance of armed opponents of the Taliban. Local warlords sided with the Americans and turned against the Taliban. Within months, the Taliban government had been ousted and Al-Quaida had been dealt a serious blow after heavy fighting at Tora Bora. The Americans established a transitional government under Hamid Karzai. Karzai was confirmed as president in the country's first free elections in 2004. A new constitution was also drawn up in 2004. The fall of the Taliban was greeted with relief by the population. Men had their beards shaved en masse; women and girls made extensive use of the newfound freedoms, such as the possibility to go out in public unaccompanied, or the right to go to school.
Between 2001 and 2021, there was a foreign security force in Afghanistan, the ISAF, made up of the Americans and their allies. Until 2003, the leadership was in the hands of the Netherlands and Germany, after which, against the wishes of Afghanistan itself, NATO took over that task.
Despite huge amounts of development money and military aid, the Americans and their allies were unable to establish lasting democratic governance or a somewhat functioning civil society in the country. The security situation deteriorated due to military blunders, the revival of the Taliban and the activities of local warlords. Western development funds fell prey to widespread corruption, instead of being used to build good infrastructure or to combat widespread poverty among the population. Millions of returning refugees and internally displaced persons compounded the problems of scarcity of food and drinking water.
The Taliban said it was fighting against the presence of 'infidels' in Afghanistan, as well as against the Afghan government, which they saw as a puppet. They often operated from the Pakistani border area. This civil war claimed the lives of civilians, employees of the Red Cross and other NGOs, and ISAF soldiers. Despite the expansion of NATO forces under Barack Obama, the Taliban were able to maintain themselves all over the country and even gradually expand their territory. However, when bin Laden, who had fled to Pakistan after Tora Bora, was liquidated by US commandos in 2011, this was seen as a major US victory.
A problem for the Afghan government was that virtually independent warlords showed little concern for central authority. The governors enriched themselves, competed and oppressed the population, while the central government remained virtually bankrupt. The Afghan army, trained with Western funds, was unable to fight the Taliban without support from ISAF. The government therefore hoped that ISAF would extend its mandate to the provinces, but the Western coalition refused. Karzai was re-elected as president in 2009. After completing the two terms allowed by the constitution, Ashraf Ghani was elected his successor in 2014. The elections were chaotic with the candidates both claiming victory. In the end, under American pressure, a division of power in the new government was decided, with Ghani as president. Ghani had a self-centered style of government and proved incapable of bonding groups, further isolating the Afghan government. Meanwhile, the Taliban expanded their power in the provinces and carried out regular bombings in Kabul. American public opinion had gradually turned against the "mission" in Afghanistan, after almost 20 years of presence without concrete improvements. In 2020, the Trump administration signed an agreement with the Taliban that would allow the Americans to withdraw from Afghanistan entirely.
The withdrawal of US troops was ordered by President Biden in June 2021. Within two months, the Afghan military's resistance to the Taliban collapsed. One by one provincial capitals fell into their hands. In August 2021, President Ashraf Ghani left the country without formally stepping down after the capital, Kabul, was taken by the Taliban. At that time, the Americans and their allies had not yet completed their withdrawal. Afghan Vice-President Amrullah Saleh took office as interim president. Due to the large number of people trying to flee the country, a major humanitarian crisis quickly developed.
Source: Wikipedia among others